Chinese Responsible Investment Overseas Newsletter Issue 1: Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC)

 

 



Please scroll down or click here for English version

View this email in your browser

企业责任资源中心
《中国海外负责任投资快讯》
2017年3月 第一期



序言

欢迎您关注本中心第一期《中国海外负责任投资快讯》。从这里您可以了解到有关负责任中国海外投资的主要议题以及最新趋势。本期我们将聚焦“自主、事先和知情同意权”(FPIC)这一主题。请按此订阅本快讯。如希望对本快讯或本中心网站的相关材料提出建议,请联系:[email protected]

近二十年来,中国企业大力“走出去”,在对外投资、承包工程、劳务合作等活动中取得了令人瞩目的成绩。随着“一带一路”合作倡议的提出,中国承诺更积极地参与全球经济治理,共同应对全球性挑战。国际社会对中国企业履行社会责任、落实可持续发展的期待和要求也随之越来越高。

作为一家独立的非营利全球性信息中心,企业责任资源中心致力于通过信息与工具的分享提高世界各地企业的社会责任意识,推动与公司运营相关问题的讨论和解决。我们的网站覆盖超过195个国家,有关总部设在世界各地企业对社会及环境影响的信息。

自2013年始,本中心在其网站平台开设了“中资企业海外投资”专页,旨在全面呈现全球受中资企业运营影响的社区团体和公民社会组织所关切的重大问题,寻求企业回应,并促进企业、政府和其他利益相关方的良性沟通。在此基础上,我们推出《中国海外负责任投资快讯》,本刊聚焦重点议题、最新案例、良好实践范例、工具与指引等,力图为不同领域的读者提供卓越的信息资源,协助中国企业负责任、可持续地“走出去”。

自主、事先和知情同意权(FPIC)可持续发展的先决条件

尽管已经取得了不少进步,但中国企业在对外投资合作,尤其在涉及到开发和利用自然资源的项目时,依然面临重大挑战。人们已经逐渐认识到在商业经营中应当遵守国际准则,助益于可持续发展目标(SDGs)的实现,并且与当地利益相关方进行有效沟通,以预防和应对社会风险。反之,将东道国政府视为利益相关方的唯一代表可能加剧冲突和社会分化,导致项目延期、搁置,使企业蒙受巨大的经济和声誉损失。

在本期的博客专栏中,我们邀请了“亚马逊观察”(Amazon Watch)的研究员Kevin Koenig先生介绍“自主、事先和知情同意”原则。该原则强调,在自然资源管理的决策中,应当以受影响人群的利益为本;在涉及矿产、林业、水电、棕榈油、农业或渔业等项目时,政府和开发商应尊重社区的权利。了解和遵循该原则不仅有利于受影响社区的生计发展,更能够帮助企业改善与当地政府和社区的关系,从而提升企业乃至整个行业在相关领域的美誉度和领导力。



最新消息及案例

国际包容性发展组织(IDI)发布有关中国海外投资中保护社区及环境的指导文件
本指南解释了中国海外投资的主要参与者,并描述了适用的环境和社会标准和指南,同时提供了如何将这些标准用于对相关中国参与者和机构的宣传的实用提示。

斯里兰卡:民众抗议中资企业运营汉班托塔港口项目
当地社区因顾虑土地征占等问题举行大规模抗议,致使有中国国有企业背景的投资者(包括招商局港口公司)在斯里兰卡汉班托塔修建港口和占地15000英亩的工业区的计划受阻。中国政府称,将推迟这两个项目,直到斯里兰卡政府解决相关争端。

秘鲁:拉斯邦巴斯中国五矿资源矿产项目因环境及就业等问题爆发抗议,政府宣布科塔巴姆巴斯进入紧急状态 [英文]
秘鲁查瓦娃丘地区宣布进入紧急状态,示威的社区封锁了道路,要求中国五矿资源公司[五矿集团旗下公司]修改其环境规划,并雇佣更多本地劳工。去年十月暴力冲突已经导致两名示威者死亡。

乌干达:中水电因使用当地居民家庭的石块筑坝未支付赔偿金被诉 [英文]
奥扬区一户居民起诉乌干达政府和中国水电建设集团国际工程有限公司为制造混凝料非法碎石,用于修建卡鲁玛水电站大坝,并且未向当地家庭支付赔偿金。

孟加拉:村民拆迁及破坏环境,再次抗议火电站项目,据报至少1人死亡
孟加拉公司S.ALAM集团计划在当地兴建该火电站,并得到中国企业山东电力建设第三工程公司的资金支持。2016年4月的示威据报已造成4人死亡。



良好实践

2015年底,由中信集团和其他四家中资公司以及一家泰国公司组成的中信联合体成功中标位于缅甸若开(Rakhine)邦的皎漂(Kyaukphyu)经济特区深水港和工业区项目。工业园占地1000公顷(2471英亩),规划入园产业包括纺织服装、建材加工、食品加工等。据悉,该项目预计每年为当地创造10万个就业岗位。然而,民间社会组织和若开邦民众提出,项目应更多地考虑当地人民的福祉;他们向经济特区委员会申诉,对招标遴选过程缺乏透明度表示关切。中信联合体就此已采取一些初步措施逐步与相关团体进行沟通,解决当地民众的忧虑。

据其向企业责任资源中心缅甸外商投资跟踪项目提交的材料,联合体已经着手开展研究工作,收集和了解缅甸有关人权的法律和规定,并与包括缅甸负责任商业中心、乐施会、国际法学家委员会、国际地球权利在内的机构建立沟通渠道,为之后实施环境和社会影响评估以及制定与项目相关的政策规定作准备。联合体——根据项目招标书要求将负责土地征用和当地居民的重新安置等事宜——向缅甸政府承诺, “以公开、透明的方式履行各项职责,与当地居民就征地补偿和安置问题达成公平合理的共识。



博客

社区的同意: 企业在亚马逊的教训 - Kevin Koenig, 亚马逊观察

[节录] 十年前,联合国通过了《土著人民权利宣言》(UNDRIP)…成为保障土著人民权利的普世标准。尽管严格来说,该文件没有法律约束力,但其是评判各国政府和企业是否尊重土著人民权利的基准。在这一历史性文件问世十周年之际,国家仍未能完全履行其中最具实践意义的内容,致使很多发展项目卷入非议,资产受损,甚至导致权益被侵犯…

在厄瓜多尔…宪法保障自主、事前、知情的“协商”权,要求国家履行正当程序,与可能因发展项目影响其文化或领土的社区进行谘商。然而,“协商”与“同意”不可同日而语…厄瓜多尔…拒绝将同意权纳入本国法律,实则是否决了土著人民拒绝政府在其祖先领土上实施开采项目的权利。政府甚至没有制定法律规则来执行宪法保障的协商权…

事实上,厄瓜多尔的“自主、事前的知情同意”进程已然扭曲了该原则的本意。其或被压制,或遭胁迫,甚或作为利益交换以换取学校或卫生诊所等国家本应承担的义务。往往在决策已达成,合同已签署,投资已落地,乃至资金已交付之后,有关方面才启动协商程序…土著人民对这一进程也知之甚少。通常某党派政府部门仅仅召开一次单独会议,用PPT演示文稿展示项目的经济利益,极少甚至完全没有关于环境和社会影响或风险的信息披露。使用的语言通常也非(土著人民)母语…

因政府完全没有与社区进行磋商而酿成悲剧的事件时有发生。近期,舒阿尔(Shuar)人抗议有中国国有企业背景的Explorcobres (EXSA)公司在该国亚马逊东南部区域的铜矿开采计划,冲突升级为暴力事件,致使数名舒阿尔人受伤,一名警察死亡…

...严格执行“自主、事前的知情同意”程序是在亚马逊和其他地区实施灵活、可持续的开发政策的关键,也是行为底线的重要元素。实践证明,如若继续以无视社区权利与意愿的方式营商,所有利益相关方都将受害…

阅读全文



工具与指引

最新翻译: 《参与自主、事先的知情同意: 指导企业如何执行自主、事先的知情同意权》,商务社会责任国际协会(BSR), 2012年出版 [2017年3月中文翻译]

《提高社区对自主的事先知情同意权的理解: 培训者手册》,澳大利亚乐施会,2014年4月

《自主、事前、知情的认可指南》(中文简介),澳大利亚乐施会/云南大学出版社,2015年10月

《中国对外矿业投资行业社会责任指引​》[提及自主、事先和知情同意原则],中国五矿进出口商会,2014年10月

《柬埔寨、老挝和越南的采掘行业: 管理可持续发展业务指南》,CSR Asia, 2014年

《对外投资中的环境与社会影响案例研究: 国际经验与教训》,世界资源研究所 (WRI),2013年7月



活动/会议预告

亚洲基础设施投资银行(亚投行,AIIB)理事会第二届年会将于6月16日至18日在韩国济州岛举行:观察者、非政府组织及民间团体等可在此报名参加

Forward

Share

Tweet

Share

声明:
本邮件所有资料中评论员、组织和公司所表达的观点不代表企业责任资源中心的观点和立场:
http://business-humanrights.org/en/about-us/disclaimer

Copyright © *|CURRENT_YEAR|* *|LIST:COMPANY|*, All rights reserved.
*|IFNOT:ARCHIVE_PAGE|* *|LIST:DESCRIPTION|*

取消邮件订阅 更新订阅选项

*|IF:REWARDS|* *|HTML:REWARDS|* *|END:IF|*



Chinese Responsible Investment Overseas Newsletter
Issue 1, March 2017



Introduction

Welcome to our first issue of the “Chinese Responsible Investment Overseas Newsletter. The purpose of this newsletter is to share latest insights on key topics relating to Chinese overseas investments. This issue spotlights Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC). To sign up, please click here. To suggest materials for future issues and our online platform, please contact: Lowell Chow [email protected]

Over the past two decades, Chinese enterprise has taken great efforts in “going out” and has expanded its outbound investment, contracting projects and labour cooperation. In addition to the “Belt and Road” Initiatives (begun in 2013), China has committed to be more actively engaged in global/international economic governance and in response to global challenges. International society, therefore, holds high expectations for Chinese enterprises fulfilling social responsibility and sustainable development; as does the government of China and various industry-led initiatives.

As an independent, international nonprofit knowledge hub, Business & Human Rights Resource Centre aims to raise awareness across the world on social responsibility through information and tools sharing. We cover more than 195 countries, and the responsibilities of companies headquartered in all regions.

We established a portal on Chinese investment overseas in 2013, to present major concerns of community groups affected by Chinese-funded enterprises, to seek responses from the companies involved, and to promote healthy communication between companies, government, and stakeholders. On this basis, we are now launching the newsletter on “Chinese overseas investment”, with the focus on emerging thematic topics, new cases, good practices, tools and guidelines. We hope the newsletter draws readers across stakeholder groups and assists Chinese enterprises in responsible and sustainable “going out” practices.

Free, Prior & Informed Consent (FPIC) as a pre-requisite for sustainable development

Despite important achievements, Chinese enterprises still face significant challenges regarding their social & environmental impacts in the process of overseas investment and cooperation, particularly in projects involving natural resource development.

However there is a growing awareness of the need to adhere to international guidelines, to conduct business in a way that contributes to realization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and to communicate effectively with local stakeholders to prevent and respond to social risks. Conversely, viewing the host government as the sole representative of stakeholders can exacerbate conflict and social division, and lead to the extension or suspension of the project, which makes the company suffer from great economic and reputational loss.

We invited Kevin Koenig at Amazon Watch to introduce in a guest blog the principle of “Free, Prior, Informed and Consent”, which emphasizes that the interests of affected groups in the process of decision-making on natural resource management should be considered first.

Understanding and complying with FPIC is not only conducive to the livelihood of affected communities, but also improves the relationship between companies, local governments and the local communities, ensuring longer-term successful investments.



Latest news & cases

Inclusive Development Intl. publishes "Safeguarding communities and the environment in Chinese investments" guide
This guide explains the key actors involved in Chinese overseas investment and describes the environmental and social standards and guidelines that apply

Sri Lanka: Major protests against new Chinese port and special economic zone (SEZ) in Hambantota
Plans to build a port and a 15,000-acre industrial zone in Hambantota by Chinese state-backed investors (incl. China Merchants Port Holdings) have faced major opposition among the community over potential land grabbing concerns; Beijing says it would hold off on both projects until Colombo resolves domestic issues

Peru: Govt. declares state of emergency in Cotabambas in response to protests at Las Bambas MMG Chinese mining project over human rights concerns
A strike was declared in the district of Challhuahuacho as protesting communities blocked roads, demanding that Minerals and Metals Group [MMG, part of China Minmetals] revise part of its environmental plan and hire more locals for the Las Bambas copper mine. Violent protests in October last year had already claimed lives of two protesters.

Uganda: Sinohydro sued for using family's rock for dam construction without compensation
A family in Oyam District has sued the Government of Uganda and Sinohydro Corporation Ltd for unlawfully crushing ‘its’ rock into aggregate and using it to construct Karuma hydro-electric power dam without compensation

Bangladesh: Protest against Chinese-backed power plant reignited as villagers fear evictions & damage to environment, one protester reportedly killed
The 1,320-MW plant is a joint-venture between Bangladeshi conglomerate S Alam Group and China's SEPCOIII Electric Power Construction. Four protesters were killed in an earlier protest in Apr 2016



Good practices

CITIC Consortiums, consisting of CITIC Group, four other Chinese companies and one Thai firm, were awarded a project to develop the Kyaukphyu Special Economic Zone (SEZ) with an industrial zone and a deep sea port in Rakhine State, Myanmar in late 2015. The work on the 1,000-hectare (2,471-acre) industrial park would include textile and garment factories and construction materials and food processing industries, as well as marine supply and maintenance facilities. The project would reportedly generate about 100,000 jobs a year for the local people. However, civil society groups and Rakhine State locals demanded more considerations for the welfare of local people and raised concerns over the lack of transparency in the tender selection process by lodging complaints with the SEZ committees. The consortium therefore has taken some initial steps to address the concerns raised, and to communicate with concerned groups better.

According to its response to the Business & Human Rights Resource Centre’s Myanmar Foreign Investment Tracking Project, the Consortium has started to collect and study the human rights laws and regulations in Myanmar and established communication channels with organisations, including Myanmar Center for Responsible Business (MCRB), Oxfam, International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) and Earth Rights International (ERI), in preparation for implementing environmental & social Impact assessments and developing related polices & regulations for the projects at a later stage. The consortium also pledges the Myanmar government – which will be responsible for land requisition and resettlement of the local inhabitants according to the project RFP – “to fulfill such responsibilities in open and transparent manners and…reach fair and reasonable consensus with the local inhabitants on the issues of compensations for land acquisition and resettlement”.



Guest blog

Community Consent: Business lessons from the Amazon - by Kevin Koenig, Amazon Watch

[Abstract] A decade ago, the United Nations adopted the Declaration on Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), which...has become the universal standard on the rights of indigenous peoples...while it remains technically non-binding, UNDRIP is the benchmark by which governments and companies are judged with regard to respecting indigenous rights. But on the eve of the ten-year anniversary of the historic document, failure of states to properly implement perhaps its most practical components is miring development projects in controversy, stranding assets, and leading to rights violations...

In Ecuador…the country’s 2008 constitution…guarantees the right to Free, Prior, Informed Consultation, which obliges the state to conduct due process of consultation of communities potentially affected by projects that affect their culture or territory. However, consultation is not the same as consent…Ecuador refuses to codify the right to consent, effectively rejecting the right of indigenous peoples to say no to government-imposed extraction projects on their ancestral territory, and has even failed to enact legal regulations to implement the constitutional guarantee to consultation…

In fact, the FPIC process in Ecuador has been widely shown to be anything but what the acronym stands for. It can be coerced, come under duress, or as a quid pro quo in exchange for benefits like schools or health clinics that are already existing obligations of the state. It often occurs after major decisions are made, contracts are signed, investment procured, and money has exchanged hands…The process is also rarely informed, usually consisting of a single meeting and PowerPoint presentation in a non-native language by a partisan government ministry about the economic benefits of the project, with little to no information or disclosure about environmental or social impact, or risk...

In some instances, no consultation takes place at all, with tragic results. A recent conflict between the Shuar indigenous people and the Chinese state run Explorcobres (EXSA) over a planned copper mine in the country’s southeastern Amazon region turned violent, leaving several Shuar injured and resulting in the death of one police officer…

...A properly implemented FPIC process is a healthy component to the bottom line and the key to smart, sustainable development policy in the Amazon and beyond. History has shown that continuing to operate as business as usual over the rights and wishes of communities will end poorly for all stakeholders…

Read full blog



Tools & Guidances

Engaging With FPIC: Benefits and Challenges, BSR, Sep 2012

Strengthening Community Understanding of Free Prior and Informed Consent: Trainer's Manual, Oxfam Australia, Apr 2014

Understanding FPIC: Free, Prior and Informed Consent A Guide to Free Prior and Informed Consent, Oxfam Australia, Aug 2011

Guidelines for Social Responsibility in Outbound Mining Investments [mentions approaches to FPIC], CCCMC, Oct 2014​

Extractives in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam: Managing Sustainable Development-Guidance for Business, CSR Asia, 2014

Managing environmental impact: International experience and lessons in risk management for overseas investments, World Resources Institute, Aug 2014



Upcoming Events

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) 2nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors (16-18 Jun, Jeju, South Korea): registrations open to observers, NGOs & CSOs

Forward

Share

Tweet

Share

Disclaimer:
We take no position on views by commentators, organizations & companies in the materials in this email: http://business-humanrights.org/en/about-us/disclaimer

Copyright © *|CURRENT_YEAR|* *|LIST:COMPANY|*, All rights reserved.
*|IFNOT:ARCHIVE_PAGE|* *|LIST:DESCRIPTION|*

Contact Us:
*|HTML:LIST_ADDRESS_HTML|* *|END:IF|*

unsubscribe from this list update subscription preferences

*|IF:REWARDS|* *|HTML:REWARDS|* *|END:IF|*