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Report examines community strategies & remedies for land conflicts linked to business activities in India, Indonesia & Myanmar

Palm_oil_plantation_Indonesia_credit_Rasyid Ridha_wikicomons

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Article
1 June 2018

Midcourse Manoeuvres: Community strategies and remedies for natural resource conflicts in India

Author: K. Kohli, M. Kapoor, M. Menon, V. Viswanathan, CPR-Namati Environmental Justice Program

...This study is an attempt to understand the lived experience of people affected by land use change and related conflicts...[T]his research seeks to analyse what affected people do when such conflicts arise.  What are the strategies they adopt and what kinds of remedies do they seek?  Further, what drives these choices? Section 1 looks at the nature of land governance in India, including how land area has been classified and administered.  It also presents a quick read of the history of land reforms in the country, especially in the states of West Bengal and Kerala.  The next section presents an overview of the constitutional and legal provisions through which land use change is permitted and regulated.  Section 3 is a detailed account of land use change as permitted through the environment clearances under the EIA notification, 2006...Section 4 is an analysis of the different kinds of impacts such land use change results...Section 5 presents a broad range of conflicts, which manifest as a result of the impacts of land use change...[I]n  Section 6, the study looks at the strategies adopted by the affected people for achieving a variety of remedies to redress the impacts they face on a daily basis. The strategies include both legal and non-legal routes... 

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Article
1 June 2018

Midcourse Manoeuvres: Community Strategies and Remedies for Natural Resource Conflicts in India, Indonesia and Myanmar

Author: Manju Menon, CPR-Namati Environmental Justice Program

...The following is the overview of a three-year study to scope the nature and extent of land use change in the three...Asian  countries  of  India, Indonesia and Myanmar...The study analyses primary data on land use approvals for mining, hydropower, industrial estates and plantations over the last three decades in these countries as these sectors have caused large-scale land transformations...This research hopes to contribute to the understanding of the conditions and consequences of land conflicts arising from land use change. What are the reasons why land conversion proposals escalate into land conflicts, what are the strategies that affected communities adopt to address these and to what outcomes...The overall objective of the study is to understand how communities secure land and natural resources that are intrinsic to their basic human survival and livelihoods and to what effect...The research also elaborates on the range of laws  and institutions that are directly relevant to land and environmental conflicts in each of these countries...

Contents
An  Overview
Terms  used  in  the  study
Methodology
Analysis
Impacts  of  land  use  change
Conflicts
Strategies
Responses  to  community  strategies
Remedies
Conclusion

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Article
1 June 2018

Midcourse Manoeuvres: Community Strategies and Remedies for Natural Resource Conflicts in Indonesia

Author: M. Kapoor, M. Menon, V. Viswanathan, CPR - Namati Environmental Justice Program

...The history of Indonesia’s land and natural resources is tied to the swings in the country’s political regime...In 1966, General Suharto successfully staged a military coup.  Under his presidency, Indonesia experienced the “New Order”.  A key aspect of this regime was trade and industrial expansion...This report tries to analyse how this development based on extractive, large-scale agricultural projects and industrial and infrastructure projects has impacted communities.  It also looks at the efforts made by the communities in mitigating the impacts faced by them and the results of these efforts.  The first section of the report provides an overview of the economic and political context and the legal framework that governs land based development in the country.  The second section provides the extent of land use change followed by the section on impacts.  Subsequent sections delve into strategies employed to mitigate these impacts and remedies achieved...

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Article
1 June 2018

Midcourse Manoeuvres: Community strategies and remedies for natural resource conflicts in Myanmar

Author: M. Kapoor, Nwe Ni Soe, V. Viswanathan, Centre for Policy Research (CPR) and Namati

...This research tries to understand how land use change has occurred throughout Myanmar and what its consequences on communities have been.  The first section provides an overview of land governance in Myanmar.  The second section maps the extent of land use change driven by different sectors and the underlying issues in each sector of land use.  The third section focuses on the impacts caused by land use change on farmers’ and communities’ lives.  The fourth section explores the strategies employed by the people affected by these land transformations.  The fifth section discusses the remedies sought and obtained by those affected by the land transformations. In the last section, a brief overview of the study has been provided with concluding remarks...

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