Trafigura lawsuits (re Côte d’Ivoire)

Toxic Waste, By:Fernost, Creative Commons Pour la version française de ce profil, cliquez ici.

On 19 August 2006 the ship Probo Koala unloaded a waste shipment at Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast).  This waste was disposed of at open air sites around Abidjan.  The ship was chartered by the London office of Trafigura, a Dutch international petroleum trader.  The Probo Koala had attempted to discharge this waste at the port of Amsterdam, but the port service would not accept the waste without an additional handling charge because of the waste’s alleged toxicity.  The ship left the port of Amsterdam without discharging its waste.  After the waste from the ship was discharged in Abidjan, people living near the discharge sites began to suffer from a range of illnesses (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, breathlessness, headaches, skin damage, and swollen stomachs).  Sixteen people have died, allegedly from exposure to this waste, and more than 100,000 have sought medical attention.

Trafigura sent two of its executives to Abidjan in August 2006 to investigate what happened.  These executives and a representative from a Trafigura subsidiary, Puma Energy, were arrested by Ivorian authorities and imprisoned.  On 12 February 2007 the Government of Côte d’Ivoire signed a settlement agreement with Trafigura in which the company agreed to pay $198 million to the Ivorian government for a compensation fund, the construction of a waste treatment plant and to assist in the recovery operations.  However, the company stressed this payment was not "damages" and that it did not admit liability.  Côte d’Ivoire agreed to drop any prosecutions or claims, now or in the future, against Trafigura.  After this settlement agreement was made, the Trafigura executives and the Puma Energy representative were released from prison.

Claims in the United Kingdom

Probo Koala shipIn November 2006, the High Court of Justice in London agreed to hear a group action by about 30,000 claimants from Côte d’Ivoire against Trafigura over the alleged dumping of toxic waste from the Probo Koala.  Applicants alleged that the waste had high levels of caustic soda, as well as a sulphur compound and hydrogen sulphide making it hazardous waste as defined by the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes.  

Trafigura denied the waste was toxic and claimed the waste was standard waste from onboard operations of ships (“slops” as defined by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships).  Trafigura was alleged to have shipped the untreated chemical waste to Côte d’Ivoire with knowledge that there were no facilities to treat it.  Trafigura denied responsibility, stating that they had entrusted the waste to an Ivorian disposal company, Tommy, which was established a few weeks before the ship’s arrival.  Trafigura claimed it had no grounds for suspecting that Tommy would improperly dispose of the waste.  Trafigura denied the number of applicants/victims and stated that only 69 people suffered significant injury.  On 23 March 2009, the court granted the plaintiffs a temporary injunction barring Trafigura from contacting any of the claimants in the case.  This injunction came after counsel for the claimants presented evidence that the company had been contacting individual claimants urging them to change their sworn statements.  

In September 2009, the parties to the UK lawsuit reached a settlement agreement in which Trafigura agreed to pay each of the 30,000 claimants a certain amount, approximately $1500.  The parties released a joint statement that said, among other things, "independent experts are unable to identify a link between exposure to the chemicals released from the slops and deaths, miscarriages, still births, birth defects, loss of visual acuity or other serious and chronic injuries. Leigh Day and Co, in the light of the expert evidence, now acknowledge that the slops could at worst have caused a range of short term low level flu like symptoms and anxiety".

In October 2009 an individual, Claude Gohourou, came forward claiming to represent the victims through his organization - National Coordination of Toxic Waste Victims of Côte d’Ivoire.  Mr Gohourou succeeded in freezing the bank account in which the settlement funds were being held.  The claimants' lawyers dispute the authenticity of this organization and Mr Gohourou's authority to distribute the funds to the claimants.  On 22 January 2010, the Court of Appeals in Abidjan ruled in favour of Mr Gohourou and his organization and ordered the settlement funds be transferred to him.  In mid-February 2010 the parties reached an agreement about the distribution of the settlement funds.  However, 6000 of the victims still have not received the compensation.

In June 2016, the High Court ruled that Leigh Day, the law firm representing the victims, should compensat the victims that had not received compensation due to the breach of its its duty of care.  Leigh day declared: "...were devastated when some of the monies were misappropriated. We did our damnedest to recover the monies resulting in the great majority of our clients having received their compensation."

Claims in the Netherlands

In February 2008, Dutch prosecutors served notice that they intend to file criminal charges against Trafigura, among others, for its alleged part in the disposal of waste in Côte d’Ivoire.  In June 2008 an Amsterdam court began hearing evidence in this case.  The Dutch trial started in June 2010.  

The Dutch prosecutors accused Trafigura of illegally exporting hazardous waste to Côte d’Ivoire.  The allegations against the company are that it breached Dutch export and environmental laws as well as forging official documents.  Trafigura rejected these charges.  In July 2010 the Dutch court ruled that the company had concealed the dangerous nature of the waste aboard the Probo Koala and fined the company €1 million.  The Dutch court also convicted a Trafigura employee and the Ukrainian captain of the Probo Koala for their roles in the matter. 

In the meantime, Greenpeace filed a complaint with the Court of Appeal in The Hague trying to compel the public prosecutor to prosecute the company for more than just the export of hazardous waste.  In April 2011, the appeal court ruled that the public prosecution department is not required to prosecute Trafigura for the dumping of the waste in Côte d’Ivoire. 

When the regional court in Amsterdam decided in 2008 not to prosecute Trafigura's co-founder and director Claude Dauphin, the prosecutors appealed the court's decision.  They were turned down and later lodged another appeal before the Supreme Court, which sent the case back to the appeals court in Amsterdam to review the original decision.  In January 2012, the court decided that Claude Dauphin can be prosecuted for the alleged illegal export of waste by Trafigura.  In November 2012 the Dutch Public Prosecutor's Office and Trafigura reached an out-of-court settlement.  Trafigura agreed to pay €300,000 compensation and paid a €67,000 fine in return for the withdrawal of the case against Claude Dauphin.

In February 2015, lawyers representing 110,937 Ivorians sent a summons to Trafigura in respect of a new lawsuit. The lawsuit alleges that Trafigura caused " bodily, moral and economic injury...to the plaintiffs," and requests that Trafigura pay each claimant 2,500 euros in compensation, as well as cleaning up the waste.  In November 2016, a Dutch court rejected the claim by a foundation representing them, finding that the foundation did not establish that the claim was in the best interests of the affected Ivorians.

Claims in France

In July 2008, three French victims of the Probo Koala incident filed a complaint against Trafigura before an examining magistrate in Paris alleging corruption, involuntary homicide and physical harm leading to death.  

- Court finds Leigh Day breached duty of care to Trafigura claimant, John Hyde, Law Society Gazette (UK)
- "100,000 victims of Ivory Coast toxic spill launch Dutch suit", Yahoo News, 20 Feb 2015
- "Dutch Probo Koala toxic waste cases finally settled out of court", DutchNews.nl, 16 Nov 2012
- "Trafigura lessons have not been learned, report warns", Fiona Harvey, Guardian [UK], 25 Sep 2012
- "Trafigura director can be prosecuted says Dutch court", Expatica, 30 Jan 2012
- "Trafigura fined €1m for exporting toxic waste to Africa", Rob Evans, Guardian [UK], 23 Jul 2010
- "Fear over Ivory Coast ruling on Trafigura waste pay-out", BBC News, 22 Jan 2010
- "Trader Trafigura settles Ivorian waste case", Loucoumane Coulibaly & Reed Stevenson, Reuters, 20 Sep 2009
- "Oil company accused of 'nobbling' witnesses in African toxic waste case", Frances Gibb, Times [UK], 24 Mar 2009
- "Ivory Coast turns to UK in class action over toxic waste", Times [UK], 4 Jun 2008
- "Update: Trafigura To Pay Ivory Coast EUR7.6M Over Toxic Waste", Lananh Nguyen, Dow Jones Newswires, 17 Apr 2008
- "Dutch plan to charge Trafigura over toxic ship", Reuters, 19 Feb 2008
- "Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste probe goes to France", afrol News [Lesotho], 26 Jul 2007
- "Toxic waste deal won't halt case", BBC News, 15 Feb 2007
- [FR] "Déchets toxiques : Trafigura dédommage la Cote d’Ivoire mais nie toute responsabilité", Véronique Smée, Novethic, 14 Feb 2007
- "UK action over 'toxic waste' case", BBC News, 2 Feb 2007
- "Neglect and Fraud Blamed for Toxic Dumping in Ivory Coast", Lydia Polgreen, New York Times, 24 Nov 2006
- "Global Sludge Ends in Tragedy for Ivory Coast", Lydia Polgreen & Marlise Simons, New York Times, 2 Oct 2006

- Trafigura : Probo Koala updates
- Trafigura: Amnesty International Report, 27 Sep 2012
- [PDF] Trafigura & Leigh Day: Agreed Final Joint Statement, 19 Sep 2009
- Leigh Day [counsel for plaintiffs]: International Claims - Ivory Coast 
- Leigh Day: Victims of toxic waste in despair at court ruling, 22 Jan 2010
- Amnesty International & Greenpeace: [PDF] The Toxic Truth, 25 Sep 2012
- Sherpa: [PDF] Probo Koala: A catastrophe emblématique, justice exemplaire, 9 Jul 2008
- [FR] Commission internationale d’enquête sur les déchets toxiques dans le District d’Abidjan [établie par le Gouvernement de Côte d’Ivoire] : [DOC] Rapport de la commission internationale d'enquete sur les dechets toxiques deverses dans le district d'Abidjan, 19 Feb 2007

- [FR] Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme (FIDH): Affaire des déchets toxiques : une transaction au détriment de la justice et de la réparation pour les victimes, 16 Feb 2007
- Greenpeace International: Toxic Waste in Abidjan : Greenpeace Evaluation, 15 Sep 2006

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Article
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Author: Jeune Afrique

Jugé à Amsterdam, la société Trafigura est poursuivie dans l'affaire du Probo Koala pour infraction aux législations sur les importations, les exportations de déchets et la protection de l'environnement... Le négociant en produits pétroliers avait affrété le Probo Koala, le cargo qui, en 2006, avait déversé ses déchets toxiques en Côte d'Ivoire provoquant, selon la justice ivoirienne, 17 décès et des milliers d'intoxications (ce que la multinationale a toujours nié)... La procureure du tribunal d'Amsterdam...a requis une amende de deux millions d'euros contre la multinationale qui, selon elle, porte « la responsabilité finale pour toute la procédure à bord du Probo Koala ». La société a « placé ses propres intérêts commerciaux au-dessus de ceux de la santé et de l'environnement, aussi bien ici aux Pays-Bas qu'en Côte d'Ivoire », a-t-elle encore affirmé... Le parquet a également requis 6 mois de prison dont 3 mois avec sursis contre l'ancien directeur de la société spécialisée dans le traitement des déchets Amsterdam Port Service (APS)...

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Article
1 June 2010

Trafigura accused over Ivory Coast toxic waste

Author: BBC News

Dutch prosecutors have accused multi-national oil trading firm Trafigura of illegally exporting hazardous waste to Ivory Coast in 2006. The allegations came at the start of a trial in which the firm is accused of breaking Dutch export and environmental laws and forging official documents…Trafigura rejects the charges. It denies the waste was dangerous, or that it knew the chemicals would be dumped. Among those standing trial is an employee of Trafigura and the Ukrainian captain of the Probo Koala, the ship that exported the waste from the Netherlands…The city of Amsterdam and Amsterdam Port Services (APS), are charged with not preventing the export of dangerous waste.

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Author: Albane Wurtz, Developpementdurable.com

Alors que le procès s’ouvre le 1er juin prochain aux Pays-Bas, Greenpeace....vient de remettre au parquet hollandais un rapport contenant les déclarations de 9 chauffeurs de camions qui avaient dû transporter les déchets toxiques du navire jusqu’à une décharge près d’Abidjan. A la suite de cette manipulation, les chauffeurs ont eu de graves ennuis de santé et 2 d’entre eux sont morts. Or, selon les témoignages qu’à recueillis Greenpeace, l’affrêteur du navire contenant les déchets, Trafigura, aurait acheté leur silence. « Trafigura leur a demandé de dire que les déchets n’étaient pas dangereux, qu’ils n’avaient pas eu d’impact sur leurs vies », a avoué...une porte-parole de Greenpeace. 650€ le 11 février 2009 et 2 300€ le 13 avril 2010 : ce sont les sommes versées par Trafigura aux chauffeurs de camions...la société a avoué leur avoir versé de l’argent mais seulement pour étouffer la volonté des chauffeurs de procéder à du chantage et non pour minimiser l'impact des déchets sur leur santé.

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Article
19 May 2010

June start for Dutch trial over I. Coast waste dump

Author: AFP

A company that chartered a ship that dumped waste alleged to have killed 17 people in the Ivory Coast will stand trial from June 1 along with the boat's captain, a court said Wednesday. The Probo Koala dumped caustic soda and petroleum residues on city waste tips in Abidjan in August 2006 after having been prevented from offloading in Amsterdam…Trafigura, which chartered the ship, and its captain are to be tried in Amsterdam for breaking Dutch waste export laws among other charges…The waste caused 17 deaths and thousands of poisoning cases, according to Ivory Coast lawyers…The company has, nevertheless, always denied any link between the waste and any deaths or serious illnesses in the Ivory Coast.

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Article
18 May 2010

'Trafigura paid drivers to lie about Probo Koala waste', says Volkskrant

Author: DutchNews.nl

Amsterdam-based oil trader Trafigura bribed nine Ivory Coast lorry drivers to make false statements about the dumping of chemical waste from the ship Probo Koala, the Volkskrant and tv programme Nova claim. The drivers say they were paid almost €3,000 each to make statements in which they said the waste was not dangerous to their health, the paper states. Now…Greenpeace has made a formal complaint to the public prosecution department in Rotterdam…In a statement, Trafigura strongly denies offering the drivers money and says the claims are 'dishonest and malicious'. But the company's law firm does say some drivers were paid expenses.

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Article
18 May 2010

Trafigura denies paying for toxic waste testimonies

Author: Gilbert Kreijger, Reuters

Commodities trader Trafigura denied on Tuesday it had paid witnesses in return for testimonies about toxic waste that was dumped in Ivory Coast in 2006. Trafigura hired a company to dispose of the waste in 2006, which was later found at several sites in…Abidjan. Trafigura…said…one of the drivers who had transported the toxic waste began to threaten Trafigura…, saying he had been injured by the waste. That was contrary to the man's earlier statement given to Trafigura…Trafigura wanted to make public his statement, which was given confidentially... "The drivers agreed to the unrestricted use of their statements, but on condition that they were paid a sum of money," Trafigura…said.

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Article
11 May 2010

Trafigura faces £105m legal bill over dumping of toxic waste

Author: Robert Verkaik, Independent [UK]

[Trafigura]…is facing a record legal bill of more than £100m over the dumping of toxic waste in Ivory Coast…Martyn Day, a senior partner of Leigh Day & Co, the London law firm incurring the costs, said it had fought a "long and tough" battle with Trafigura…He added…£10m went on travel expenses and expert reports, £45m on paying solicitors and barristers…The claims were launched against Trafigura after an incident in August 2006 in which "slops" were deposited near Abidjan…The oil trading firm said it regretted the incident but did not accept legal liability as the dumping was carried out by a ship contractor which acted independently…without any authority from, Trafigura…

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Author: Interview avec Aliou Diouf, Chercheur pour l'Afrique francophone du Centre de Ressources sur les Entreprises & les Droits de l'Homme, dans la revue Business & Community de Be-Linked [France]

Pour mener à bien sa mission d’information sur les impacts positifs et négatifs des entreprises sur les droits de l’homme et l’environnement, l’ONG britannique Business & Human Rights Resource Centre s’est dotée d’un personnel qualifié et d’un solide réseau de chercheurs dans le monde... On observe en Afrique ces dernières années une augmentation des affaires portées devant les juridictions nationales,
certaines de ces affaires ont d’ailleurs abouti à des indemnisations... Cette confrontation entre les populations locales, les ONG et les entreprises n’est pas inévitable. La société civile, les populations locales, les entreprises et les autorités publiques doivent travailler à assurer une meilleure protection des droits de l’homme et de l’environnement... S’il y a de bonnes pratiques des entreprises, nous devons les souligner... [Fait référence à Shell, Trafigura. L'encadré mentionne une initiative de Nokia.]

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Author: Agence France Presse (AFP)

L'opération d'indemnisation des victimes des déchets toxiques en Côte d'Ivoire, bloquée depuis octobre 2009, a débuté à Abidjan..."Le paiement a commencé dans les banques depuis le 9 mars", a affirmé Claude Gohourou, président de la Coordination nationale des victimes des déchets toxiques (CNVDT-CI) dont l'association gère "conjointement" le processus d'indemnisation avec le cabinet d'avocats anglais Leigh Day and co. Plus de "16.000 chèques" ont déjà été délivrés et les victimes sont payées au fur et à mesure, a souligné M. Gohourou... Le déversement de résidus toxiques du cargo Probo Koala [affrété par Trafigura] à Abidjan en août 2006 avait causé la mort de 17 personnes, selon la justice ivoirienne, et des milliers d'intoxications. La compagnie a toujours nié qu'il ait pu provoquer décès et maladies graves.

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Article
12 March 2010

[video] Corporations on Trial - update

Author: Al Jazeera People & Power

Last year People & Power ran a series of special reports on five cases of multinational companies being held to legal account by ordinary people. The charges against them ranged from environmental damage and corruption to unlawful killing and even war crimes. Ten months later, People & Power returns with an update on those Corporations on Trial…One of the most striking features of our Corporations on Trial series was how ordinary people found the courage and determination to pursue justice through the courts, even though success in some cases seemed a very long way off. [refers to Alstom, Chiquita, Green Park, Green Mount, Lapindo Brantas, Trafigura, Veolia]

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