hide message

Hello! Welcome to the Resource Centre.

We hope you find our free tools and resources useful. Did you know we also work directly with community advocates, providing them with the skills and resources to document corporate human rights abuses and effectively communicate with business?

This is only possible through generous donations from people like you.

Please consider supporting our work.

Thank you,
Phil Bloomer, Executive Director

Donate now hide message

Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP): Background, commentaries & media coverage on human rights concerns

Background

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement between 12 Pacific Rim nations: Australia, Canada, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, United States, Vietnam, Chile, Brunei, Singapore, and New Zealand, with the potential for other states, namely China and Thailand, to join.  The agreement is the largest of its kind to date, covering 40% global GDP.  The agreement has been finalised and the full text is now available. 

Proponents of the TPP say that it will boost the international economy by reducing trade barriers across a range of goods and services, which will in turn create new opportunities for businesses and consumers.  With the stated aim of encouraging overseas investment, the TPP includes investor state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions.  The agreement also makes specific reference to the environment and labour standards, which government bodies have said will promote respect for human rights and the environment. 

Key business & human rights concerns

There has been concern among civil society that the agreement does not do enough to protect and promote respect for human rights and the environment, and in some situations, may be harmful.  Critics warn that the human rights standards in the TPP are unenforceable and the agreement will open the door to abuses by multinational corporations. 

Investor-state dispute settlement

A primary concern is with the ISDS provision, which allows corporations to sue governments when a regulation or governmental action negatively impacts the investment.  Critics say that this provision puts too much power in the hands of corporations and undermines the state sovereignty to legislate, for example, to improve social or environmental protections.  In response to concerns that this mechanism will be used for frivolous claims or when the disputed regulation is for a public purpose, the ISDS provision in TPP has added safeguards including transparency, public participation, expedited review, barring of shell companies, appeals and independent experts, among others.  Additionally, following concerns that governments will be sued for regulations that were made to protect public health (see Phillip Morris v Australia), a state party can elect to deny access to ISDS to foreign investments that are affected by health regulation aimed at tackling tobacco.  However, civil society remains concerned that the threat of expensive lawsuit is enough to create a regulatory chill where governments will refrain from pursuing such social and environmental policies in the first place.

Labour standards

Another concern is that the rich economies in the agreement, such as the US, are opening up their markets to the benefit of countries with poor labour standards.  While the agreement provides that signatories have to meet international standards on labour rights as contained in International Labour Organisation conventions, it lacks specific mechanisms to enforce commitments that governments make on labour rights, and thus states are unlikely to implement these standards if it will have a detrimental impact on their competitiveness, for example by making labour more expensive.

Intellectual property affecting access to medicines, freedom of expression & privacy

Civil society is also concerned about the chapter on intellectual property.  Patent protections included in the treaty may reduce access to medicines in the poorer member states by granting pharmaceutical companies monopoly rights to keep cheap generic medicines off the market.  There are also concerns about digital freedoms and privacy.  Some believe there will be extensive negative impacts on digital users’ freedom of expression and right to privacy. 

Lack of environmental protections

Environmentalists have criticised the TPP for not including enforcement mechanisms for environmental provisions.  The agreement notably does not reference climate change. 

LGBT rights

LGBT groups are also critical of the inclusion of Brunei and Malaysia in the deal, for allowing these governments who have criminalised homosexuality to benefit from having access to a larger consumer market. 

Government webpages

Australia: http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/pages/trans-pacific-partnership-agreement-tpp.aspx

New Zealand: http://www.tpp.mfat.govt.nz/

USA: https://ustr.gov/tpp/

Singapore: https://www.mti.gov.sg/MTIInsights/Pages/TPP.aspx

Canada: http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/tpp-ptp/index.aspx?lang=eng

Get RSS feed of these results

Related stories and components

Article
30 November 2016

Commentary: Controversial Trans Pacific Partnership agreement not likely to continue without US involvement

Author: Kavaljit Singh, Madhyam

"The TPP is Dead. What Happens Next?", 25 Nov 2016...

Read more

Article
23 November 2016

Trump disavows intl. trade deals but he will bolster corporate power through deregulation & tax breaks, says journalist

Author: Michelle Chen, In These Times (USA)

"Trump Vows to Disrupt Trade—Progressives Need to Push Him in the Right Direction", 22 Nov 2016...

Read more

Story
9 September 2016

Letter signed by over 200 academics warns that intl. investment arbitration threatens rule of law by empowering foreign businesses

See full story

Story
1 September 2016

Investigative series looks at inequalities & injustices in intl. investment arbitration

Buzzfeed News investigates the injustices of investor state dispute settlement (ISDS) in a four part series. The series explores how the threat of arbitration is enough to chill government regulation, how ISDS helps executives escape punishment &...

See full story

Article
26 February 2016

WTO ruling against India's protections for solar industry increases concerns about Trans-Pacific Partnership

Author: Ben Walsh, Huffington Post (USA)

"The WTO Gave Environmentalists A New Reason To Oppose The TPP"...

Read more

Article
24 February 2016

Trade agreements & investment disputes threaten tax justice, says report

Author: Claire Provost for Transnational Institute & Global Justice Now

“Taxes on trial: How trade deals threaten tax justice”, 1 Feb 2016...

Read more

Article
20 January 2016

TPP provision on dispute resolution should be open to civil society & victims of corporate abuses, says academic

Author: Lance Compa, The Nation (USA)

“How to Make the Trans-Pacific Partnership Work for Workers and Communities”, 14 Jan 2016...

Read more

Article
12 January 2016

Human Rights Watch Q&A on the Trans-Pacific Partnership

Author: Human Rights Watch

What is the Trans-Pacific Partnership?...

Read more

Story
5 November 2015

Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement text released

For more information on the TPP and how it affects human rights, see here.

See full story

Story
14 October 2015

USA & 12 Pacific Rim nations agree trade deal, critics warn over impacts on workers & environment

The Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement between the USA, Japan, and 10 other Pacific Rim nations has been finalised. This deal, the largest trade agreement of its kind to date, will have major implications for the rights of workers and the...

See full story