Guinée: Le gouvernement n'a pas fourni aux populations déplacées par le barrage de Souapiti une compensation adéquate et les moyens de subsistance nécessaires, selon un nouveau rapport

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Auteur: The News International (Pakistan)

“Guinea’s prized dam project under fire over village displacements”, 19 April 2020

… The inhabitants of Bouramaya Sousou, an impoverished village in central Guinea, now say they struggle to feed themselves and have not received any compensation -- complaints echoed by hundreds of others in the area…

… the builders of Souapiti dam say once operating it will meet demand for power, even allowing export of surplus electricity to neighbouring states.

But some 16,000 people must relocate first: the dam´s reservoir is set to flood the remote bush where they live.

Resettlement has begun, but many of the displaced people say they await compensation for losses and complain that the new villages lack water and suitable farmland.

In a mark of failure, hundreds have returned with their livestock to their old villages of low-slung mud huts. "They didn´t plan anything," said Oumar Aissata Camara, the spokesman for the Souapiti Victims´ Association, referring to the dam project.

The displaced villagers are "excessively poor," he added, warning that a botched resettlement could have dire consequences…

Dubbed West Africa´s water tower, Guinea´s highlands are the source of the region´s major rivers, including the Gambia, the Senegal, the Niger and the Konkoure…

But fresh water is scarce in the nation of some 13 million people. Power cuts, for those with electricity, are also rampant…

… [in 2016] a subsidiary of the China Three Gorges Corporation started building the dam…

Human Rights Watch (HRW) says it has recorded a litany of similar complaints -- ranging from poor water access to uncompensated losses for fruit trees and farmland -- in dozens of interviews…

Guinea´s energy ministry and China Three Gorges Corporation did not respond to requests for comment…

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Auteur: The News International (巴基斯坦)

[此翻译由企业责任资源中心提供]

“几内亚备受推崇的水电站项目因村庄搬迁问题受到批评”,2020年4月19日

……位于几内亚中部贫困的Bouramaya Sousou村的村民说,他们现在维持生活都很困难,还没有得到任何的补偿。该地区数百人也对此表达了不满……

……苏阿皮蒂水电站的承建方表示,投入运营后的水电站不仅能满足几内亚国内的电力需求,多余电能还将输送至几内亚的邻国。

但水电站项目需要搬迁约16000人,大坝蓄水会淹没他们居住的林区。

搬迁已经开始,但很多搬迁的村民表示,他们还在等补偿金。他们还说,安置村缺水,也没有适合耕作的土地。

数百人带着家畜返回了低矮的泥屋,这标志着搬迁工程的失败。苏阿皮蒂受害者协会(the Souapiti Victims´ Association)的发言人说,水电站项目“根本就没有规划。”

他还警告说,搬迁的村民“很穷”,糟糕的安置计划会带来严重的后果……

被称为西非“水塔”的几内亚高原是该地区主要河流冈比亚河、塞内加尔河、尼日尔河和孔库雷河的发源地……

但这个有着1300万人口的国家却是缺水国,停电现象司空见惯……

……(2016年)中国三峡集团(China Three Gorges Corporation)下属的一家子公司开始修建大坝……

人权观察表示,该组织在数十个采访中记录了大量的投诉,包括缺水和对果树和耕地损失没有赔偿等……

几内亚能源部和中国三峡集团没有回应置评请求……

 

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Auteur: The News International (巴基斯坦)

[此翻譯由企業責任資源中心提供]

“幾內亞備受推崇的水電站項目因村莊搬遷問題受到批評”,2020年4月19日

……位於幾內亞中部貧困的Bouramaya Sousou村的村民說,他們現在維持生活都很困難,還沒有得到任何的補償。該地區數百人也對此表達了不滿……

……蘇阿皮蒂水電站的承建方表示,投入運營後的水電站不僅能滿足幾內亞國內的電力需求,多餘電能還將輸送至幾內亞的鄰國。

但水電站項目需要搬遷約16000人,大壩蓄水會淹沒他們居住的林區。

搬遷已經開始,但很多搬遷的村民表示,他們還在等補償金。他們還說,安置村缺水,也沒有適合耕作的土地。

數百人帶著家畜返回了低矮的泥屋,這標誌著搬遷工程的失敗。蘇阿皮蒂受害者協會(the Souapiti Victims´ Association)的發言人說,水電站項目“根本就沒有規劃。”

他還警告說,搬遷的村民“很窮”,糟糕的安置計劃會帶來嚴重的後果……

被稱為西非“水塔”的幾內亞高原是該地區主要河流岡比亞河、塞內加爾河、尼日爾河和孔庫雷河的發源地……

但這個有著1300萬人口的國家卻是缺水國,停電現象司空見慣……

……(2016年)中國三峽集團(China Three Gorges Corporation)下屬的一家子公司開始修建大壩……

人權觀察表示,該組織在數十個採訪中記錄了大量的投訴,包括缺水和對果樹和耕地損失沒有賠償等……

幾內亞能源部和中國三峽集團沒有回應置評請求……

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Auteur: Human Rights Watch (US)

“DAM DISPLACEMENT DESTROYS LIVELIHOODS IN GUINEA - 16,000 People Losing Land for China-Backed Souapiti Project”, 15 April 2020

The Guinean government’s failure to provide adequate land, compensation, and other forms of support to those displaced for the Souapiti hydroelectric dam has devastated the livelihoods and food security of thousands of people, Human Rights Watch said in a report... The dam is part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)…

The 63-page report, “‘We’re Leaving Everything Behind’: The Impact of Guinea’s Souapiti Dam on Displaced Communities,” documents how resettled communities, forced off their ancestral homes and farmlands, are struggling to feed their families, restore their livelihoods, and live with dignity.

The 450-megawatt dam… is displacing an estimated 16,000 people and flooding 253 square kilometers of land…

“While Guinea is in dire need of more reliable electricity, that shouldn’t be an excuse to trample the rights of people displaced by the Souapiti dam,” said Yasmin Dagne, Africa research fellow at Human Rights Watch. “Guinea’s government needs to ensure that displaced communities have access to the land and resources they need to rebuild their lives.”…

…The project is a public-private partnership between the Guinean government and China International Water & Electric Corporation (CWE), a subsidiary of state-owned China Three Gorges Corporation, which is building the dam and will jointly own and operate it. State-owned Export-Import Bank of China (China Eximbank)… is financing the project through a US$1.175 billion loan to the Guinean government…

Souapiti’s reservoir is also flooding a vast area of agricultural land, including an estimated 42 square kilometers of crops and more than 550,000 fruit-bearing trees. Many displaced people are struggling to find adequate food for their families…

The Souapiti Agency does not provide displaced residents with replacement farmland but said it will assist them to farm more intensively on their remaining land and find new income sources, such as fishing. Those resettled, however, have so far received no such assistance…

The Souapiti Agency told Human Rights Watch that it is “in the process of redoubling its efforts to invest in the restoration of livelihoods.”…

Residents from all the villages Human Rights Watch visited said that they had complained to the Souapiti Agency or local government officials about problems with the resettlement process, but that they had received no response or one that did not address their concerns. The Souapiti Agency told Human Rights Watch that it had “delayed” implementing a formal grievance policy, and only did so in September 2019, after more than fifty villages had been moved.

The flawed resettlement process for the Souapiti dam is also evidence of the need for Chinese companies, banks, and regulators to ensure that BRI projects and other Chinese overseas investments respect human rights. CWE, in an email to Human Rights Watch, said that the resettlement is the responsibility of the Guinean government, but that as a shareholder in Souapiti the company “participates in the reinstallation and plays a role of supervisor.” China Eximbank did not respond to a letter from Human Rights Watch…

“Chinese state companies and banks involved in the BRI can’t pass on responsibility for negative human rights impacts to national governments,” said Jim Wormington, Senior Africa Researcher for the Environment and Natural Resources. “They should work closely with national authorities to ensure that communities benefit from, and are not the victims of, large-scale infrastructure developments.”

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Auteur: Human Rights Watch (US)

“Interview: Displaced and Destitute as Guinea Advances Dam Project with Help from China”, 16 April 2020

The Souapiti dam, Guinea’s largest hydropower project so far, has the potential to significantly improve access to electricity in a country in desperate need of reliable energy. But the 450-megawatt dam, part of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), comes at a substantial cost to local communities. Thousands of villagers will lose agricultural land to flooding and, with it, access to food and income. Birgit Schwarz speaks with Guinean activist Mariama Barry about her work on Human Rights Watch’s new report and the need for Chinese investors to better protect the social and environmental rights of those affected by infrastructure projects…

The vast majority of people who are being resettled are farmers whose families have exploited the land in the area for generations. Most are extremely poor. Having left their homes and with much of their land flooded or no longer accessible, many are struggling to feed their families…

... According to the Guinean government, the dam’s reservoir will ultimately displace an estimated 16,000 people from 101 villages and flood 253 square kilometers of land…

… Resettled families do not receive legal title to their new land, only a document recording the host community’s consent to grant them land. Given the scarcity of land and the size of the area that is to be flooded this might well lead to future conflicts…

None of the displaced communities we talked to had been compensated for the loss of their land, only for the crops and trees growing on it. The Souapiti Agency argues that because the land was customarily owned, people are not entitled to compensation, a position that violates international standards. The Souapiti Agency has not provided displaced residents with replacement farmland either…

People have written numerous letters to local as well as national authorities, but largely to no avail. The Souapiti Agency admits that during the initial process of displacement there were no formal complaints mechanisms in place, nor did people have access to independent legal advice. Recently, some efforts have been made by the dam management to find out from the communities what their grievances and needs might be. But not enough tangible efforts have been made to address the original problems with the resettlement…

The dam is part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)… the dam is being constructed by a Chinese company – China International Water & Electric Corporation (CWE), a subsidiary of the world’s second largest dam builder, state-owned China Three Gorges Corporation – and is financed by China’s state-owned Export-Import Bank (Eximbank).

Because of the criticisms of the environmental and social impact of some BRI projects, it’s really important that Chinese companies and banks involved in these projects in Africa do their utmost to respect human rights standards…

… given the human rights, social, and environmental impact of the different hydropower projects planned in Guinea, the government should assess whether all the planned dams are needed and sensible. Where dams are being built, the government needs to ensure that national and international norms and standards are being respected during the resettlement process. Also, the compensation displaced people receive ought to be fair and transparent, and those who have been resettled should be given sufficient land to restore their livelihoods and be granted legal ownership of the land they are allocated. And lastly, it is vital that the government take the concerns of those affected seriously. If the grievances of those who are being displaced are ignored, large-scale infrastructure projects will make already impoverished communities even poorer.

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Auteur: Radio France Internationale

[Translation from French to English provided by Business & Human Rights Resource Centre]

It is the key project of President Alpha Condé's second five-year term: with a capacity of 450 megawatts, the Souapiti dam should double the energy supply of Guinea, where less than a third of the population has access to electricity ...

Launched in 2015, the project is a public-private partnership between the Guinean government and the China International Water and Electric Corporation (CWE) financed by a loan of 1.175 billion dollars from the China Exim Bank as part of China's "New Silk Roads" policy. In a report published over the weekend, Human Rights Watch warns of the situation of the 16,000 displaced people caused by the works.

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20 April 2020

Guinée: l'ONG Human Rights Watch alerte sur le sort des déplacés de Souapiti

Auteur: Carole Valade, RFI

C’est le projet phare du second quinquennat du président Alpha Condé : d’une capacité de 450 mégawatts, le barrage de Souapiti devrait doubler l’approvisionnement en énergie de la Guinée dont moins d’un tiers de la population a accès à l’électricité...

Lancé en 2015, le projet est un partenariat public-privé entre le gouvernement guinéen et la China International Water and Electric Corporation (CWE) financé par un prêt de 1,175 milliard de dollars de la China  Exim Bank dans le cadre de la politique chinoise des « Nouvelles routes de la soie ». Dans un rapport publiée en fin de semaine, l’ONG de défense Human Rights Watch alerte sur le sort des 16 000 déplacés causés par les travaux.

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Auteur: Carole Valade, RFI

[此翻译由企业责任资源中心提供]

苏阿皮蒂水电站项目是阿尔法·孔戴(Alpha Condé)总统第二个五年任期内的重点项目:装机450兆瓦的水电站将使几内亚的能源供应翻番,目前该国全国用电人口不到三分之一……

2015年启动的水电站项目走政府和社会资本合作的模式,由几内亚政府和中国水利电力对外有限公司(China International Water and Electric Corporation)共同开发,并作为中国“新丝绸之路”倡议的组成部分,获得了中国进出口银行提供11.75亿美元的优惠出口买方信贷。在周末发表的报告中,人权观察对16000名搬迁居民的状况提出警告。

 

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Auteur: 人权观察(美国)

[此翻译由企业责任资源中心提供]

“访谈:随着几内亚在中国的帮助下推进大坝项目,被迫搬迁的民众变得一无所有”,2020年4月16日

苏阿皮蒂水电站是几内亚最大的水电项目,有望为这个能源极度短缺的国家提供大量的电力能源。作为中国“一带一路”倡议组成部分,这座发电量为450兆瓦的水电站给当地社会造成了巨大的损失。成千上万的村民因大坝蓄水失去耕地,生计没有了着落。Birgit Schwarz采访了几内亚活动家Mariama Barry,谈到了她为新的人权观察报告所做的工作,并指出,中国的投资者需要更好地维护那些受基建项目影响的民众的社会和环境权利……

被重新安置的大部分人是农民,世代以务农为生,其中很多人都非常贫穷。在搬离原住地和耕地被水淹没后,很多人养家糊口都成了问题……

……几内亚政府的数据显示,大坝蓄水将搬迁101个村庄的约16000人,淹没253平方公里的土地……

……搬迁的家庭没有获得新土地的所有权,只有一份接收社区同意分给他们土地的证明文件。由于土地资源稀缺和大量土地被淹没,未来可能因土地问题爆发冲突……

接受我们采访的搬迁社区收到了农作物和林木损失赔偿,但尚未收到征地补偿金。苏阿皮蒂项目方表示,土地习惯上为社区集体所有,个人无权获得补偿。这一观点违反了相关的国际标准。苏阿皮蒂项目方也没有为搬迁的居民提供置换耕地……

民众多次给地方政府和中央政府写信,反映这些问题,但没有得到回复。苏阿皮蒂项目方承认,在搬迁的最初阶段,没有设立投诉机制,人们无法获得独立的法律咨询意见。水电站项目的管理层最近开始收集社区的投诉和了解社区的需求,但解决搬迁遗留的问题还需要采取更多切实的措施……

大坝项目是中国“一带一路”倡议的组成部分……该项目由中国水利水电对外公司(China International Water & Electric Corporation)承建,该公司是世界排名第二的大坝承建商中国国有企业三峡集团(China Three Gorges Corporation)的下属公司。项目资金由中国进出口银行(Eximbank)提供。

一些“一带一路”项目因其环境和社会影响而受到批评,因此,在非洲参与此类项目的中国公司和银行应尽最大努力尊重人权,这一点至关重要……

……考虑到几内亚计划修建的各种水电项目产生的人权、社会及环境影响,几内亚政府应评估拟建大坝的必要性和合理性。在大坝修建过程中,政府需要确保国家和国际层面的法规和标准在搬迁过程中得到遵守。此外,还应对搬迁居民进行公正透明的补偿。安置民众应获得必要的土地,以恢复生计;他们还应获得分配给他们的土地的所有权。最后,很重要的一点是政府应关注受到水电项目严重影响的民众。如果他们的诉求被忽视,大型的基础设施项目将使贫困的社区变得更加贫穷。

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Auteur: 人权观察

“几内亚:水坝迫迁摧毁生计”, 2020年4月16日

人权观察…发表的报告中指出,几内亚政府未能为因苏阿皮蒂水电项目而被迫迁移居民提供适足土地、赔偿和其他形式援助,对成千上万人生计与粮食安全造成危害。该水电站属于“一带一路”项目之一…

这份63页的报告,《‘我们抛下了一切’:几内亚苏阿皮蒂水电站对被迫迁社群的影响》,记录当地居民被迫迁移,离开祖传居所与耕地,以致家庭温饱、生计和尊严均陷入困境。

这座水电站装机容量达450兆瓦… 估计将强迫迁徙约16,000居民,淹没253平方公里土地…

“尽管几内亚急需更稳定的供电,也不该以此为借口践踏苏阿皮蒂水坝被迫迁徙者的权利,”人权观察非洲研究学人雅丝明・丹恩(Yasmin Dagne)说。“几内亚政府必须确保被迫迁徙社群获得重建生活所需的土地和资源。”…

水电站工程… 是几内亚政府与中国水力电力对外有限公司(中水对外公司)的公私合作项目,后者是国有企业中国长江三峡集团公司的子公司,负责承建并于完工后共同拥有及运营水电站。国有的中国进出口银行是该项目融资方,向几内亚政府提供贷款11.75亿美元…

苏阿皮蒂水库也将淹没广衾农地,据估计包括42平方公里的农作物和超过55万棵果树。许多水坝被迫迁徙者难以为家人挣得温饱…

苏阿皮蒂机构答复人权观察说,它“正加倍努力投入恢复生计的工作…

在人权观察访问过的所有村庄,居民均表示已向苏阿皮蒂机构或地方政府官员投诉安置过程中的问题,但至今不是毫无回应就是答非所问。苏阿皮蒂机构告诉人权观察,它的正式申诉办法“推迟”到2019年9月才实施,当时已有50多个村庄被搬迁。

苏阿皮蒂水坝的移民安置程序有缺陷,这也表明中国企业、银行和监管机构需要确保“一带一路”项目和其他中国海外投资尊重人权。中水对外公司致人权观察的电子邮件说,移民安置是几内亚政府的责任,但作为苏阿皮蒂的股东,该公司“参与重新安置并发挥监督作用。”人权观察亦去函询问进出口银行,但未获回复…

“参与‘一带一路’倡议的中国国有企业和银行不能对各国政府的负面人权影响推卸责任,”非洲环境与自然资源高级研究员吉姆・沃明顿(Jim Wormington)说。“他们应该与各国当局紧密合作,确保居民从大型基建开发中受益,而非沦为受害者。”

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