挖得更深:煤炭行业在发展中国家的影响

随着巴黎气候大会(COP)进行,世界苦思如何就碳排放量上限达成的协议,要求把全球二氧化碳排放的最大来源-煤炭-淘汰的声音日渐强大。煤炭的问题本身除了是一个环境的问题,也是一个涉及受煤炭业务影响的个人和社区权利的问题。除了确保我们保持在全球气温上升在2摄氏度以内,确保这些权利得以维护也同样重要。

在《挖得更深》项目中,我们仔细了解煤炭在四个国家的状况 - 印度,哥伦比亚,南非和埃及。煤炭使用和生产在这些国家正在增加,与许多发达国家背道而驰。

Dejusticia和企业责任资源中心就此共同发布了相关的报告、纪录片和博客系列,让大家更深入了解煤炭行业的影响,以及各国如何在巴黎气候大会后更好清楚会议的承诺。

报告摘要 | 报告全文 | 纪录片视频博客系列

以下为报告的中文摘要:

煤炭曾是欧洲和北美第一次工业革命的核心。如今,在大部分西方世界,煤炭被视为过时之物,是肮脏时代的燃料,工人们被熏黑的肺和煤烟笼罩下的城市成为那个时代发展的代价。

时至今日,尽管发达国家的煤炭消耗量增长缓慢,而且即将召开的巴黎气候大会也强烈呼吁告别煤炭依赖,但全球煤炭的产量和消耗量并没有下降。这在很大程度上是由南方国家日益增加的煤炭产量和需求所致。

本研究聚焦四个国家:哥伦比亚、印度、南非和埃及,他们不仅具有地域代表性,而且在煤炭生产及消费方面,也各具特点。哥伦比亚、印度和南非是世界三大产煤国,但哥伦比亚生产的煤炭几乎全用于出口,印度和南非生产的煤炭则用于国内消费。埃及煤炭储量极少,但近来开始用煤炭为工业提供能源。通过分析案例国不同的政治环境以及国内最脆弱社会团体所受的影响,我们可以发现,煤炭行业在不同地区产生的影响和总体的发展趋势。

南非国内规模庞大的矿业面临着能源缺口,同时,它还需要满足邻国日益增加的煤电需求。普马兰加省是南非最主要的能源供应地,已有研究表明,燃煤发电造成该地区数千人死于呼吸道和心血管疾病,也使癌症、胎儿发育不良和其他疾病的发病率大大增加。发电厂附近社区的居民绝大部分为南非黑人,他们是经济上最被边缘化的人群。停电是他们生活中习以为常的事,即使他们社区比邻发电厂。在很多受燃煤发电影响的社区,传统的社会结构将女性排斥在决策之外,煤炭公司将补偿金等相关费用付给男性社区领导人的做法更是强化了这种社会结构。煤炭开采不仅占用了邻近社区宝贵的水资源,更是排放出有毒的煤矿酸性废水。在煤矿关闭后,这种废水仍有可能在数十年甚至数百年内对地下水造成污染。

在埃及,政府取消了长期以来禁止使用和进口煤炭的命令,并将因担心使用煤炭危害健康和环境而持反对意见的环境部长解职。自2013年5月起,埃及政府开始拒绝公布一些相关的数据和信息,如当前和拟增加的煤炭进口量与消耗量,以及政府如何监督或强制获许使用煤炭的水泥厂及其他公司履行其环保义务。在埃及政府加大力度压制言论自由和游行示威自由的背景下,民间社会没有参与开放煤炭使用的决策。

纵观南方国家的工业现状,工人们深受疾病困扰,还往往和维权者一道,因维权而遭到威胁、非法囚禁或杀害。发生在每一个案例国的侵权的情况都是独立的,但整体而言,侵权的现象在南方国家的煤炭行业普通存在。因此,煤炭行业和各国政府需要在巴黎缔约方大会(COP)作出承诺,其他利益相关方也必须认识到煤炭行业产生的影响及其未来的发展。这些问题单靠公司制定量化目标,加强技术改造和开展公益慈善无法解决,需要更多地从维护权利和提供补救的角度来加以应对。

 

[Full report refers to Anglo American, BHP Billiton, Cerrejón Coal (joint venture Anglo American, BHP Billiton, Glencore), Coal India (CIL), Coal of Africa, Drummond, Engie (formerly GDF Suez), Eskom, Glencore, Goldman Sachs, LafargeHolcim, Peabody Energy, Prodeco (part of Glencore), Reliance Energy (part of Reliance ADA), Sasol, Tata Group, Colombian Natural Resources (was part of Goldman Sachs, now part of Murray Energy), CESC (part of RPG Group), Welspun Energy (part of Welspun Group), Reliance Energy (part of Reliance ADA), Damodar Valley Corp., Udupi Power (part of Adani Power), Tata Mundra (part of Tata Power), LaFarge (now LafargeHolcim), ItaliCementi, Misr-Beni Suef, Misr-Quena, Asuit Cement (part of Cemex), El Ammriya Cemen, Titan Cement, Al Sweedy for Cement, South-Valley for Cement, National Cement (Egypt), Arabian Cement. Business & Human Rights Resource Centre invited Cerrejon coal to respond; the response is provided]

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文章
+ English - 隐藏

作者: Bettercoal

Comments in this recent report (November 2015) about Bettercoal highlight the importance of reporting and dialogue with interested parties to provide updates on our activity and plans.

On page 52, the report states:
“Among energy companies, some European coal buyers have created the Bettercoal initiative. It includes a code for mining companies that they purchase from, covering transparency, human rights, and social and environmental performance. It does provide for site-level assessments, but these are largely carried out by coal mining companies themselves, with only one to date (Drummond in Colombia) conducting a third-party assessment – in a process that NGOs criticized as lacking independence or transparency and ignoring victims of violence or the need to provide remedies for abuse. The initiative as a whole is entirely governed by energy companies that use coal – leaving it open to criticism from development organizations that it fails to include the voices of affected people, lacks transparency, and sidesteps the need for remedies for past abuses.”...

文章
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作者: Krizna Gomez, Dejusticia (Colombia) & Greg Regaignon, Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, on openDemocracy (UK)

With governments making commitments at the Paris Conference of Parties (COP21), global leaders must understand the impact and future of coal as a matter of human rights... We chose four specific country case studies—Colombia, India, South Africa and Egypt—because of their geographical representation, and the diversity of their profiles in terms of coal production and consumption... 

[We] came to six key findings. First, coal is not cheap, despite common misconceptions. Second, coal actually aggravates local poverty and may have very little positive net economic effect nationally. Third, the coal industry in the global South is being fuelled by both the South and the North—no one is exempt from responsibility. Fourth, human rights violations around the coal industry thrive in contexts of weak and/or repressive governance. Fifth, corporate social responsibility is simply not enough to guarantee true accountability. And finally, a just transition from coal is crucial for human rights—a “green” economy alone is not sufficient.

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企业回应
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1 December 2015

Response by Cerrejón Coal

作者: Cerrejon coal

...Cerrejón appreciates the opportunity to express our view and comments on the report... Cerrejón is respectful of the different positions around the use of coal as an energy resource but expects that the analysis of the social, labour and environmental performance of producing companies is done based on objective information and criteria…The Cerrejón company has operated in La Guajira (Colombia) since the 1980s, respecting Colombian legislation and complying with standards in force at the time. Cerrejón has complied with requirements for the payment of taxes and royalties (contributing almost US6 billion only since 2002). We contribute to boosting the local and national economies by providing over 13,000 decent jobs, local contracting in the amount of over US 50 million in 2014, preventing and mitigating environmental impacts, being committed to the welfare of our neighbouring communities, and promoting the sustainable development of the department of La Guajira. 1. Concerning the accusations of displacement and resettlements…The figure of 70,000 indigenous Wayuu being displaced by mining activity does not have any basis in reality…All land purchases from indigenous and non-indigenous peoples required at the start of the operation were undertaken following legislation and standards in force at the time. Recent land acquisitions and processes requiring the relocation of indigenous and non-indigenous settlements have been carried out in accordance with the social and environmental Performance Standards of the International Finance Corporation (IFC). 

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报告
+ العربية - 隐藏

作者: Dejusticia (Colombia), Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (UK)

حالياً، ورغم النمو المتعثر في استهلاك الفحم في أوساط الدول المتقدمة والمطالبات القوية بالانتقال بعيداً عن الفحم إلى بدائل أخرى مع اقتراب مفاوضات التغير المناخي المزمعة في باريس، لم ينحسر إنتاج واستخدام الفحم عالمياً بعد. جُل الأمر يتعلق بتزايد إنتاج الفحم والطلب عليه في الجنوب العالمي ...هذا التقرير يُلقي الضوء على 3 قضايا أساسية:أولاً, صعود الفحم بشكل مطرد كصناعة في الجنوب العالمي. ثانياً, الفحم كقضية حقوق إنسان وثلاثاً, المحاسبة غائبة...في شتى بؤر صناعة الفحم في الجنوب العالمي، يعاني الكثير من العُمال من الأمراض، وتعرضوا – إلى جانب مدافعين آخرين عن حقوق الإنسان – للقتل والسجن المُجحف والتهديد جراء محاولة تنظيم احتجاجات دفاعاً عن حقوقهم...هذه الشركات في الجنوب العالمي تلجأ إلى هذه التوسعات الهائلة دون تفكير ممعن في كلفة هذه الآثار على الصحة وفقدان الإنتاجية والبيئة والفقر المحلي مع إزاحة الفحم لأنشطة إنتاجية أخرى. النتيجة أنه من المستحيل معرفة إن كانت الفائدة النهائية والصافية للفحم هي حقاً كما يزعم أنصاره، أو إن كان للفحم حقاً أثراً اجتماعياً اقتصادياً إيجابياً في التحليل الأخير

 

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