案例简介:雅虎[Yahoo!]诉讼案(中国)

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2007年4月,王小宁及其妻子俞陵依据《外国人侵权索赔法》、《酷刑受害人保护法》和加州法律(向加州美国联邦法院)对雅虎(Yahoo!)及其 中国子公司提起诉讼。2007年6月,记者师涛及一些不愿透露姓名的原告加入了诉讼。王小宁和师涛两人在中国分别因煽动颠覆国家政权罪和非法向境外提供国家机密罪被判有期徒刑十年。王小宁获罪是因为通过雅虎以电子邮件的形式散播其撰写的有关宣扬中国民主改革和多党民主制的文章。师涛则是因为通过自己的雅虎账户向网站论坛发送他对一份中国政府在“六四事件”十五周年前夕对媒体下达的限制报道通知的评论 。

原告方指责雅虎向中国执法部门透露了他们在互联网上的一举一动,导致他们遭到监禁。诉讼称雅虎将用户身份信息提供给中国当局,在明知会给原告的生理、心理带来严重的痛苦和折磨的情况下,协助并帮助中国当局实施加害行为及其他侵犯人权的行为。原告方在二次修订状中称:王小宁和师涛“因行使他们的言论、集会、结社等自由权利,被中国政府官员打着中国法律的旗号,借(雅虎)之手对其实施并且正在实施迫害行为。这些行为严重违反了禁止使用酷刑……禁止采用强制劳动手段等国际社会公认的国际法标准。”

2007年8月27日,雅虎以该案涉及“国家行为”和政治问题,做出判决将有违国际礼让原则, 因此“不具备可司法性”(即案件涉及不适合在美国法庭裁决的问题)为由向法院提出申请,请求驳回原告方的起诉(这三点的详细信息请参见这里)。 2007年10月31日,法庭部分同意了原告方的请求,对案件的初步事实和司法管辖权进行调查后再决定是否同意雅虎提出的驳回起诉的申请。2007年11 月13日,雅虎CEO在国会听证会上举证之后,原被告双方同意私下达成和解, 并且共同向法院申请撤诉。雅虎同意承担原告方的诉讼费用,并且设立基金,“为那些因在互联网上表达观点而坐牢的异见人士提供人道主义援助和法律援助。”和解协议的具体条款保密。

2008年2月下旬,一些中国异见人士向美国加利福尼亚州联邦法院提起对雅虎的新诉讼,案由与2007年11月达成和解的诉讼类似。

2012年2月1日,雅虎的一名股东和中国的一名维权人士在特拉华州衡平法院对雅虎提起诉讼,寻求雅虎公司人权基金设立和运作的证据。该基金是应依照上文提到的2007年11月达成的诉讼和解协议设立的。原告方称雅虎选派的基金管理人将基金资产挪作私用。

- "Milberg LLP and Human Rights Activist File Suit Against Yahoo! Questioning Operation of the Yahoo! Human Rights Fund", Xenia Kobylarz, Milberg LLP, 6 Feb 2012 

- "Yahoo sued again by Chinese dissidents", Dan Nystedt, Computerworld, 29 Feb 2008

- “Yahoo Settles With Chinese Families”, Catherine Rampell, Washington Post, 14 Nov 2007

[FR] “Reporters sans frontiers soulagee par l’accord entre Yahoo! et les familles de Shi Tao et Wang Xiaoning”Reporters sans Frontières, 14 nov 2007

“Yahoo apologizes for action on Chinese dissident journalist” AFX News, 4 Nov 2007

- “Yahoo plea over China rights case”, BBC News, 28 Aug 2007

- “Jailed Chinese Reporter Joins Yahoo Suit”, Dikky Sinn, Washington Post, 11 Jun 2007

- “Chinese Political Prisoner Sues in U.S. Court, Saying Yahoo Helped Identify Dissidents”, Miguel Helft, New York Times, 19 Apr 2007

- World Organization for Human Rights (plaintiffs’ counsel): Corporate Accountability (includes links to legal documents filed in US case)

- Human Rights in China: Case Highlight – Shi Tao and Yahoo

- Human Rights in China: Yahoo! Cited in Decision Sentencing Internet Dissident Wang Xiaoning to 10 Years, 27 Apr 2006

- [PDF] Xiaoning v. Yahoo - Second Amended Complaint, 30 Jul 2007

Xiaoning v. Yahoo! Inc, et al. – Defendant Yahoo! Inc.’s Motion to Dismiss Plaintiffs’ Second Amended Complaint, 27 Aug 2007

- Justia: Xiaoning et al v. Yahoo! Inc, et al [index, with links, of all legal filings in case]

- [PDF] Chinese Judgment Against Shi Tao, 27 Apr 2005 (Chinese language only)

- [PDF] Chinese Judgment Against Wang Xiaoning, 12 Sep 2003 (Chinese language only)

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以下是所有相关材料

文章
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作者: Miguel Helft, New York Times

Earlier this year, a Chinese political prisoner and his wife sued Yahoo in federal court in San Francisco, accusing the company of abetting in the commission of torture by helping the Chinese government to identify political dissidents who were later beaten and tortured. Another political prisoner has since joined the case. Now Yahoo has asked the court to dismiss the case. The company makes a number of legal arguments to the court...

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作者: Rebecca MacKinnon, assistant professor at Univ. of Hong Kong Journalism & Media Studies Centre, on her blog, RConversation

[links to motions to dismiss by Yahoo, complaints against Yahoo, preliminary court decision]

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作者: Faith E. Gay & J. Noah Hagey, New York Law Journal

In the last decade, a veritable "who's who" of international businesses…have been sued in federal court under the United States' 215-year-old Alien Tort Statute…. On Oct. 12, 2007, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reaffirmed this expansive trend, holding that corporations may be held liable for aiding and abetting a third party's human rights violations abroad under this long dormant statute. Khulumani v. Barclay Nat. Bank Ltd..... The Khulumani opinion's recognition of aiding and abetting liability for corporations under the ATS was, however, counterbalanced by the 2nd Circuit's acknowledgment of the manner in which "prudential" doctrines…can be used as a means of early termination for ATS claims. [also refers to Pfizer, Caterpillar, DaimlerChrysler (now Daimler), Texaco, UBS, Yahoo, Coca-Cola, Nestle, Bridgestone/Firestone, Chiquita, Chevron, Gap, Exxon, Arab Bank, Drummond]

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作者: [opinion] Michael Likosky, Univ. of Wisconsin Law School & Social Risks LLC; Michael Shtender-Auerbach, Social Risks LLC, in San Francisco Chronicle

...Yahoo's policy of sharing personal records of its users with Chinese authorities has led to arrest, alleged torture and lengthy prison terms [in four cases]... [S]ome American companies promote and reinforce authoritarian capitalism and suppress democratic movements. The question is: How endemic is corporate-facilitated authoritarianism? In places such as China, one worries that legitimate reform and resistance will be squelched with the help of U.S. corporations... Yahoo's director of global public affairs, Tracy Schmaler, maintains that Yahoo's legal counsel provided "truthful" testimony in 2006 [to Congress on the case of journalist Shi Tao] and that Yahoo is working "to develop a global code of conduct for operating in countries around the world, including China." Corporate codes are important... However, we must be wary of private solutions in which the regulator and the regulated are one and the same. [also refers to Cisco, Google, Microsoft]

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2 November 2007

Yahoo in apology on China

作者: Stephanie Kirchgaessner, Mure Dickie, Financial Times

A top Yahoo official who has come under fire for the company's role in the 2004 imprisonment of a dissident in China apologised on Thursday for failing to tell US lawmakers that Yahoo knew more about the case than he initially acknowledged in testimony last year...The apology marks a shift in strategy at Yahoo, to strike a more conciliatory tone...Yahoo could still be vulnerable to future human rights-related cases involving Yahoo China, since Alibaba's boss, Jack Ma, made no secret of his willingness to co-operate closely with Beijing's authorities and with any investigations into users.

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作者: Corey Boles, Wall Street Journal

The families of two Chinese dissidents said they hoped a congressional hearing into Yahoo's Inc.'s role in the men's imprisonment will help spur action for their release. Gao Qinsheng, the mother of jailed journalist Shi Tao, and Yu Lin, the wife of imprisoned cyber-dissident Wang Xiaoning, spoke passionately about Yahoo's conduct. Both women said they were pleased U.S. lawmakers grilled Yahoo executives about the cases during Tuesday's hearing... After Tuesday's hearing, [Yahoo Chief Executive Jerry Yang and General Counsel Michael Callahan] met privately with Ms. Gao and Ms. Yu... According to Ms. Gao, the two apologized profusely for the company's role in the jailing of Messrs. Shi and Wang, and pledged to put pressure on the Chinese government to release them. They also discussed a court case in which the women are suing the company... In his testimony..., Mr. Callahan expressed a willingness to consider settling the case...Yahoo didn't respond to questions about whether the company would attempt to pressure Beijing over the jailed men.

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作者: AP, dans Le Nouvel Observateur [France]

Yahoo est parvenu mardi à un accord à l'amiable avec deux journalistes chinois qui poursuivaient le géant américain de l'Internet pour avoir transmis aux autorités chinoises des informations sur leurs activités en ligne, ce qui avait conduit à leur emprisonnement. Les termes du règlement n'ont pas été révélés.

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作者: World Organization for Human Rights USA

...Yahoo [has] agreed to settle the lawsuit filed against it by Human Rights USA. The lawsuit...sought to hold Yahoo accountable for its complicity in major human rights abuses in China. Yahoo had handed over the identifying internet user information of well-known Chinese journalist Shi Tao, and pro-democracy writer Wang Xiaoning, to Chinese authorities, who sought to punish the two men for having done nothing more than expressed their free speech rights...

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作者: John Letzing, MarketWatch [USA]

Yahoo Inc. on Tuesday settled a lawsuit filed against the Internet company by Chinese dissidents who accused it of complicity in their jailing... Yahoo Chief Executive Jerry Yang said that Yahoo will now provide "financial, humanitarian and legal support" to the jailed dissidents' families... Separately, Yang said Yahoo is also now establishing a fund "to provide support to other political dissidents and their families."

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作者: Verne Kopytoff, San Francisco Chronicle

...Yahoo Inc. [has] settled a lawsuit by two Chinese journalists who were jailed after the Internet giant provided Beijing authorities with their e-mail records... As part of the settlement, Yahoo said it will provide unspecified financial assistance to the plaintiffs and their families... "There's responsibility for all U.S. corporations doing business abroad," said Morton Sklar, an attorney with the World Organization for Human Rights USA and who represented the [plaintiffs]... Yahoo no longer does business in China after selling its operations there in 2005 to...Alibaba. However, Yahoo still has influence in China, Sklar insisted, in part because it owns a major stake in Alibaba and Yang sits on that company's board. [also refers to Google]

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