案例簡介:雅虎[Yahoo!]訴訟案(中國)

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For an English-language version of this case profile, please click here.

2007年4月,王小寧及其妻子俞陵依據《外國人侵權索賠法》、《酷刑受害人保護法》和加州法律(向加州美國聯邦法院)對雅虎(Yahoo!)及其 中國子公司提起訴訟。2007年6月,記者師濤及一些不願透露姓名的原告加入了訴訟。王小寧和師濤兩人在中國分別因煽動顛覆國家政權罪和非法向境外提供國家機密罪被判有期徒刑十年。王小寧獲罪是因為通過雅虎以電子郵件的形式散播其撰寫的有關宣揚中國民主改革和多黨民主制的文章。師濤則是因為通過自己的雅虎賬戶向網站論壇發送他對一份中國政府在“六四事件”十五周年前夕對媒體下達的限制報道通知的評論 。

原告方指責雅虎向中國執法部門透露了他們在互聯網上的一舉一動,導致他們遭到監禁。訴訟稱雅虎將用戶身份信息提供給中國當局,在明知會給原告的生理、心理帶來嚴重的痛苦和折磨的情況下,協助並幫助中國當局實施加害行為及其他侵犯人權的行為。原告方在二次修訂狀中稱:王小寧和師濤“因行使他們的言論、集會、結社等自由權利,被中國政府官員打著中國法律的旗號,借(雅虎)之手對其實施並且正在實施迫害行為。這些行為嚴重違反了禁止使用酷刑……禁止采用強制勞動手段等國際社會公認的國際法標准。”

2007年8月27日,雅虎以該案涉及“國家行為”和政治問題,做出判決將有違國際禮讓原則, 因此“不具備可司法性”(即案件涉及不適合在美國法庭裁決的問題)為由向法院提出申請,請求駁回原告方的起訴(這三點的詳細信息請參見這裡)。 2007年10月31日,法庭部分同意了原告方的請求,對案件的初步事實和司法管轄權進行調查後再決定是否同意雅虎提出的駁回起訴的申請。2007年11 月13日,雅虎CEO在國會聽證會上舉證之後,原被告雙方同意私下達成和解, 並且共同向法院申請撤訴。雅虎同意承擔原告方的訴訟費用,並且設立基金,“為那些因在互聯網上表達觀點而坐牢的異見人士提供人道主義援助和法律援助。”和解協議的具體條款保密。

2008年2月下旬,一些中國異見人士向美國加利福尼亞州聯邦法院提起對雅虎的新訴訟,案由與2007年11月達成和解的訴訟類似。

2012年2月1日,雅虎的一名股東和中國的一名維權人士在特拉華州衡平法院對雅虎提起訴訟,尋求雅虎公司人權基金設立和運作的證據。該基金是應依照上文提到的2007年11月達成的訴訟和解協議設立的。原告方稱雅虎選派的基金管理人將基金資產挪作私用。

- "Milberg LLP and Human Rights Activist File Suit Against Yahoo! Questioning Operation of the Yahoo! Human Rights Fund", Xenia Kobylarz, Milberg LLP, 6 Feb 2012 

- "Yahoo sued again by Chinese dissidents", Dan Nystedt, Computerworld, 29 Feb 2008

- “Yahoo Settles With Chinese Families”, Catherine Rampell, Washington Post, 14 Nov 2007

[FR] “Reporters sans frontiers soulagee par l’accord entre Yahoo! et les familles de Shi Tao et Wang Xiaoning”Reporters sans Frontières, 14 nov 2007

“Yahoo apologizes for action on Chinese dissident journalist” AFX News, 4 Nov 2007

- “Yahoo plea over China rights case”, BBC News, 28 Aug 2007

- “Jailed Chinese Reporter Joins Yahoo Suit”, Dikky Sinn, Washington Post, 11 Jun 2007

- “Chinese Political Prisoner Sues in U.S. Court, Saying Yahoo Helped Identify Dissidents”, Miguel Helft, New York Times, 19 Apr 2007

- World Organization for Human Rights (plaintiffs’ counsel): Corporate Accountability (includes links to legal documents filed in US case)

- Human Rights in China: Case Highlight – Shi Tao and Yahoo

- Human Rights in China: Yahoo! Cited in Decision Sentencing Internet Dissident Wang Xiaoning to 10 Years, 27 Apr 2006

- [PDF] Xiaoning v. Yahoo - Second Amended Complaint, 30 Jul 2007

Xiaoning v. Yahoo! Inc, et al. – Defendant Yahoo! Inc.’s Motion to Dismiss Plaintiffs’ Second Amended Complaint, 27 Aug 2007

- Justia: Xiaoning et al v. Yahoo! Inc, et al [index, with links, of all legal filings in case]

- [PDF] Chinese Judgment Against Shi Tao, 27 Apr 2005 (Chinese language only)

- [PDF] Chinese Judgment Against Wang Xiaoning, 12 Sep 2003 (Chinese language only)

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以下是所有相關材料

文章
+ English - 隱藏

作者: Miguel Helft, New York Times

Earlier this year, a Chinese political prisoner and his wife sued Yahoo in federal court in San Francisco, accusing the company of abetting in the commission of torture by helping the Chinese government to identify political dissidents who were later beaten and tortured. Another political prisoner has since joined the case. Now Yahoo has asked the court to dismiss the case. The company makes a number of legal arguments to the court...

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作者: Rebecca MacKinnon, assistant professor at Univ. of Hong Kong Journalism & Media Studies Centre, on her blog, RConversation

[links to motions to dismiss by Yahoo, complaints against Yahoo, preliminary court decision]

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作者: Faith E. Gay & J. Noah Hagey, New York Law Journal

In the last decade, a veritable "who's who" of international businesses…have been sued in federal court under the United States' 215-year-old Alien Tort Statute…. On Oct. 12, 2007, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reaffirmed this expansive trend, holding that corporations may be held liable for aiding and abetting a third party's human rights violations abroad under this long dormant statute. Khulumani v. Barclay Nat. Bank Ltd..... The Khulumani opinion's recognition of aiding and abetting liability for corporations under the ATS was, however, counterbalanced by the 2nd Circuit's acknowledgment of the manner in which "prudential" doctrines…can be used as a means of early termination for ATS claims. [also refers to Pfizer, Caterpillar, DaimlerChrysler (now Daimler), Texaco, UBS, Yahoo, Coca-Cola, Nestle, Bridgestone/Firestone, Chiquita, Chevron, Gap, Exxon, Arab Bank, Drummond]

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作者: [opinion] Michael Likosky, Univ. of Wisconsin Law School & Social Risks LLC; Michael Shtender-Auerbach, Social Risks LLC, in San Francisco Chronicle

...Yahoo's policy of sharing personal records of its users with Chinese authorities has led to arrest, alleged torture and lengthy prison terms [in four cases]... [S]ome American companies promote and reinforce authoritarian capitalism and suppress democratic movements. The question is: How endemic is corporate-facilitated authoritarianism? In places such as China, one worries that legitimate reform and resistance will be squelched with the help of U.S. corporations... Yahoo's director of global public affairs, Tracy Schmaler, maintains that Yahoo's legal counsel provided "truthful" testimony in 2006 [to Congress on the case of journalist Shi Tao] and that Yahoo is working "to develop a global code of conduct for operating in countries around the world, including China." Corporate codes are important... However, we must be wary of private solutions in which the regulator and the regulated are one and the same. [also refers to Cisco, Google, Microsoft]

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2 November 2007

Yahoo in apology on China

作者: Stephanie Kirchgaessner, Mure Dickie, Financial Times

A top Yahoo official who has come under fire for the company's role in the 2004 imprisonment of a dissident in China apologised on Thursday for failing to tell US lawmakers that Yahoo knew more about the case than he initially acknowledged in testimony last year...The apology marks a shift in strategy at Yahoo, to strike a more conciliatory tone...Yahoo could still be vulnerable to future human rights-related cases involving Yahoo China, since Alibaba's boss, Jack Ma, made no secret of his willingness to co-operate closely with Beijing's authorities and with any investigations into users.

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作者: Corey Boles, Wall Street Journal

The families of two Chinese dissidents said they hoped a congressional hearing into Yahoo's Inc.'s role in the men's imprisonment will help spur action for their release. Gao Qinsheng, the mother of jailed journalist Shi Tao, and Yu Lin, the wife of imprisoned cyber-dissident Wang Xiaoning, spoke passionately about Yahoo's conduct. Both women said they were pleased U.S. lawmakers grilled Yahoo executives about the cases during Tuesday's hearing... After Tuesday's hearing, [Yahoo Chief Executive Jerry Yang and General Counsel Michael Callahan] met privately with Ms. Gao and Ms. Yu... According to Ms. Gao, the two apologized profusely for the company's role in the jailing of Messrs. Shi and Wang, and pledged to put pressure on the Chinese government to release them. They also discussed a court case in which the women are suing the company... In his testimony..., Mr. Callahan expressed a willingness to consider settling the case...Yahoo didn't respond to questions about whether the company would attempt to pressure Beijing over the jailed men.

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作者: AP, dans Le Nouvel Observateur [France]

Yahoo est parvenu mardi à un accord à l'amiable avec deux journalistes chinois qui poursuivaient le géant américain de l'Internet pour avoir transmis aux autorités chinoises des informations sur leurs activités en ligne, ce qui avait conduit à leur emprisonnement. Les termes du règlement n'ont pas été révélés.

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作者: World Organization for Human Rights USA

...Yahoo [has] agreed to settle the lawsuit filed against it by Human Rights USA. The lawsuit...sought to hold Yahoo accountable for its complicity in major human rights abuses in China. Yahoo had handed over the identifying internet user information of well-known Chinese journalist Shi Tao, and pro-democracy writer Wang Xiaoning, to Chinese authorities, who sought to punish the two men for having done nothing more than expressed their free speech rights...

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作者: John Letzing, MarketWatch [USA]

Yahoo Inc. on Tuesday settled a lawsuit filed against the Internet company by Chinese dissidents who accused it of complicity in their jailing... Yahoo Chief Executive Jerry Yang said that Yahoo will now provide "financial, humanitarian and legal support" to the jailed dissidents' families... Separately, Yang said Yahoo is also now establishing a fund "to provide support to other political dissidents and their families."

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作者: Verne Kopytoff, San Francisco Chronicle

...Yahoo Inc. [has] settled a lawsuit by two Chinese journalists who were jailed after the Internet giant provided Beijing authorities with their e-mail records... As part of the settlement, Yahoo said it will provide unspecified financial assistance to the plaintiffs and their families... "There's responsibility for all U.S. corporations doing business abroad," said Morton Sklar, an attorney with the World Organization for Human Rights USA and who represented the [plaintiffs]... Yahoo no longer does business in China after selling its operations there in 2005 to...Alibaba. However, Yahoo still has influence in China, Sklar insisted, in part because it owns a major stake in Alibaba and Yang sits on that company's board. [also refers to Google]

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