Renewable Energy & Human Rights Benchmark

The transition to a net-zero carbon economy is a human rights imperative for all peoples, but cannot come at the expense of the most vulnerable among us. This first global human rights benchmark examines the human rights policies of 16 of largest wind and solar companies.

Climate change is among the most important and complex issues our planet and its people have faced in centuries, and the COVID-19 pandemic has only reinforced the urgency and necessity of building global economic systems that are both equitable and sustainable. 

The deployment and expansion of renewable energy technologies will play an integral role in reducing our collective carbon footprint, but can come at a cost for workers and communities if companies do not ensure respect for human rights in their operations and through their supply chains. The ambitious and necessary goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 requires equally robust steps to ensure this transition is truly just.

This first human rights benchmark of the largest renewable energy companies reveals that most lack the essential human rights policies to avoid abuse of the communities and workers on which a just transition depends.

The results of the benchmark suggest that none of the companies analysed are currently fully meeting their responsibility to respect human rights, as defined by the UN Guiding Principles. Nearly half the companies benchmarked (7/16) scored below 10%, with three quarters (12/16) scoring below 40%. The average score was just 22%, indicating that, as a whole, the industry has a long way to go to demonstrate its respect for the human rights of communities and workers in their operations and supply chains.

BlackRock, IberdrolaEnel and Orsted respond  to this benchmark.

The lack of human rights policy strongly correlates with allegations of abuse.

The widespread and egregious practice of land grabs, for example, is reflected in the fact that no companies scored points for having policies to respect land rights, to govern their process of land acquisition, or on just and fair relocation of residents.

Play video

Phil Bloomer on renewable energy & human rights

The Resource Centre's Executive Director, on the need for respect for human rights in the renewable energy industry in order to ensure a Just Transition.

Since 2010, Business & Human Rights Resource Centre has identified 197 allegations of human rights abuses related to renewable energy projects, and asked 127 companies to respond to these allegations. Abuse allegations include: killings, threats, and intimidation; land grabs; dangerous working conditions and poverty wages; and harm to indigenous peoples’ lives and livelihoods.   

Allegations have been made in every region and across all five sub-sectors of renewable energy development: wind, solar, bioenergy, geothermal, and hydropower. The region with the highest number of allegations is Latin America (121 allegations since 2010, 61% of allegations globally).

Benchmark Key Findings Report

Download and explore our key findings


Download Scoring Data

How did companies score under each indicator? Take a look at the raw data



Case Studies

Explore positive and negative cases related to renewable energy and human rights


How did we assess companies? Take a look at our methodology

Further Resources

Find more briefings analysing renewable energy companies' policies and practices

Find out more


Explore statements of endorsement in support of this benchmark

Find out more