Tailored Wages 2019: Surveys show major global clothing brands failing to deliver on living wage commitments to garment workers
In 2019, Clean Clothes Campaign released Tailored Wages 2019, a series of reports examining whether major European brands are meeting living wage commitments in their global supply chains, based on brand responses to surveys on the outcome of their wage programmes and commitments (survey responses linked below). Overall, the reports show that while some brands are doing more than others to promote better practices, no brand can yet show that living wages are being paid to any garment worker in supply chains outside their own headquarter countries.
The reports recommend:
1. Clothing brands and companies must set public, concrete, measurable steps throughout their supply chain to ensure garment workers get paid a living wage within a reasonable timeframe, following the approach laid out in the Roadmap to a Living Wage.
2. Clothing brands and companies should negotiate and sign legally-binding, enforceable agreements with worker representatives that require the payment of significantly higher prices to suppliers, affording them the financial capacity to pay a living wage that covers the basic needs of a worker and her/his family.
The following reports in the series are linked below:
Tailored Wages UK 2019: The state of pay in the global garment industry (12 major UK brands, in addition to 20 global brands)
Tailored Wages 2019: The State of Pay in the Global Garment Industry (20 global brands)
In German: Minimum wages in the global garment industry - Company check 2019 (20 global brands, plus 25 additional brands)
All components of this story
Author: Public Eye
"Firmencheck 2019", 19. September 2019
Fünf Jahre nach dem letzten Firmencheck haben wir erneut 45 Modefirmen befragt. Das Resultat: Obwohl sich immer mehr Modefirmen auf dem Papier zu existenzsichernden Löhnen verpflichten, verdient immer noch kaum einer der Menschen, die unsere Kleider herstellen, genug, um in Würde leben zu können...
Nur bei zwei der 45 befragten Firmen (Gucci, Nile) konnten wir Anhaltspunkte dafür finden, dass zumindest einem Teil der Beschäftigten in der Produktion ein existenzsichernder Lohn gezahlt wird. Und nur bei Nile profitieren auch Arbeiterinnen ausserhalb des eigenen Hauptsitzlandes. Der Firmenvergleich zeigt aber durchaus Unterschiede bei den Zwischenschritten auf: Einige Marken sind weiter, einige Ansätze erfolgsversprechender als andere...
Diese Studie analysiert, weshalb viele der freiwilligen Ansätze, mit denen Firmen derzeit die Lohnfrage in ihrer Lieferkette angehen, zu kurz greifen. Sie zeigt, dass es mehr Verbindlichkeit braucht, um das Recht auf einen Existenzlohn zu garantieren.
- Related stories: Tailored Wages 2019: Surveys show major global clothing brands failing to deliver on living wage commitments to garment workers
- Related companies: adidas Group Albiro Aldi Nord Aldi Süd Amazon.com C&A CALIDA Group Chicorée Coop (Switzerland) Décathlon Esprit Fruit of the Loom (part of Berkshire Hathaway) G-Star Raw Gap Gucci H&M Holy Fashion Group Hugo Boss Inditex Intersport KiK Levi Strauss Lidl Mammut Sports Group Manor Maus Frères Migros Nike Nile Clothing Odlo International Otto Peek & Cloppenburg/Van Graaf PKZ Burger-Kehl & Co. Primark (part of Associated British Foods) Puma PVH (Phillips-Van Heusen) Remei Sherpa Outdoor Tally Weijl Tchibo Triumph International Under Armour Uniqlo (part of Fast Retailing) Workfashion Zalando SE Zebra Fashion
Author: Hannah Abdulla
"Global brands respond to living wage criticism", 13 June 2019
...just-style reached out to the 31 brands mentioned. Some said they hadn't received the survey, while others commented the report had taken a "blanket approach" without recognising the individual efforts taken, or the point brands were currently at on their individual journeys to addressing the matter.
Sainsbury's Tu Clothing: "All our suppliers wherever they are in the world, have to meet the Sainsbury's Code of Conduct for Ethical Trade. We train our suppliers on ethical trade and have dedicated teams in the UK, China, India and Bangladesh to ensure we can regularly visit our sites and confirm they meet our high standards. We have also signed the Bangladesh Accord, were one of the biggest improvers in this year's Fashion Transparency Index and recently published further information on our website to ensure we're transparent about our supply chain."
H&M: "Earning a living wage is a fundamental human right, and this is the reason that H&M Group was one of the first companies to put commitments in place to achieve this. However, to make fair living wages a reality for garment workers around the world there are certain steps that must be taken first to create the foundations necessary for systemic change to take place. In the five years since we started working on our strategy to achieve living wages, we can see that these processes are now starting to fall into place: by empowering garment workers and making fair negotiations possible, by improving our purchasing practices to ensure that they support fair living wages, for example by excluding labour costs from price negotiations, and by forming necessary industry collaborations that will enable the entire industry to take steps forward.
In order to secure significant wage increases, it's essential that the work done at individual factories - which our goals for 2018 were about - is accompanied by industry solutions, such as industry-wide collective bargaining agreements supported by brands committing to responsible purchasing practices. We are therefore working together with 21 other brands and the global IndustriAll which represents garment workers, towards this goal. This would be a true game-changer and turning point for the industry.
Thus, the first steps in creating, a solid foundation for fair living wages have been taken, and we can see important progress when it comes to wages. We are one of the few companies to have wage data publicly available which shows the increases we see in workers' wages. H&M Group has since several years had a dialogue with Clean Clothes Campaign [Labour Behind the Label], and even if we share the same end goal - that every garment worker should earn a fair living wage - we disagree on how to best achieve progress. We listen to recommendations from the ILO and the global trade union IndustriAll on how a company such as ours should address this complex issue, and they support our way of working. A lot of work remains to be done and we will continue to work as recommended by these experts."
New Look: "New Look is committed to respecting and improving the lives of workers across our global supply chain. We want all workers to earn a living wage and we have worked hard in collaboration with other key stakeholders to build meaningful relationships with our suppliers, NGOs and local experts. Membership of ACT (the Action, Collaboration, Transformation living wage initiative) enables crucial industry-wide collective bargaining and is one of a number of initiatives the business has in place to improve living standards for all workers."
M&S: "At M&S we believe it's vital that our clothes are ethically sourced and we have a very clear set of Global Sourcing Principles that are a condition of working with us. Alongside our Plan A commitments, we're committed to working in collaboration with our suppliers, other retailers and organisations such as the Ethical Trading Initiative to improve workers' conditions, support processes to establish fair wages and ensure mature industrial relations in the garment industry"
Amazon: "Our publicly available Supplier Code of Conduct incorporates internationally recognised human rights standards, which include that suppliers must pay their workers in a timely manner and provide compensation (including overtime pay and benefits) that, at a minimum, satisfy applicable laws. We partner closely with our suppliers and business partners to drive continuous improvement in working conditions; we have dedicated teams that work directly with suppliers in key sourcing regions, track and report performance, and set goals at a senior executive level to improve working conditions."
Levis Strauss: "Levi Strauss & Co believes that everyone who works has the right to wages ensuring a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and of their family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services. At a systemic level, we encourage governments to set a minimum wage consistent with the cost of living and establish comprehensive and regular mechanisms for minimum wage programmes in sourcing countries that promote financial literary, women's health, and overall worker well-being."
Tesco: "We are working in partnership with global unions and leading brands to achieve living wages for workers. As a member of the ground-breaking initiative ACT (Action, Collaboration, Transformation), we have committed to ensuring our own purchasing practices will enable these higher wages to be paid, once set. We think it is right that workers and their union representatives have the opportunity to negotiate their own wages with factory owners".
Asos: "There is no 'silver bullet' to solving these challenges, and we know there's a lot that needs to be done. We can't achieve this alone, so our ambition is to find long-term solutions to address the key human rights challenges in the garment supply chain through meaningful collaboration. To that end, we believe that ACT is the most credible initiative with a genuine chance of increasing garment workers' wages and improving working conditions in a way that is scalable, sustainable and enforceable."
Primark: “Every factory making Primark products must commit to meeting the standards set out in the Primark Code of Conduct, which states that wages must be paid in line with the law or industry benchmark, whichever is highest, and that wages must always be enough to meet basic needs and provide some discretionary income. Our Code is based on standards set by the Ethical Trading Initiative, which in turn in based on those of the UN’s International Labour Organization. Collaboration to address this industry issue is key, which is why we are a founding and very active member of Action, Collaboration, Transformation (ACT), an initiative between international brands, manufacturers and IndustriALL to support fairer wages across the textile and garment supply chain.”
Hugo Boss “Hugo Boss has regularly participated in the survey of the Clean Clothes Campaign in the past and is in close contact with the organisation on a regular basis. Unfortunately the survey request was not handled internally as usual, which led to [us] not providing the requested information in the end. This does not reflect our position with regards to transparency of course, and we are very sorry for this. It goes without saying that we will nevertheless provide the relevant data to the Clean Clothes Campaign for their information.
“Social responsibility, fair working conditions and the well-being and safety of our employees- as well as those associated with us – is a fundamental for Hugo Boss. Hence, these topics are a key focus area of our sustainability management. Hugo Boss commits itself and its suppliers to complying with the Hugo Boss Social Standards, which are based on internationally recognised standards. Among other factors, these Standards stipulate a fair compensation for their work or other additional benefits. The compensation has to ensure an acceptable minimum standard of living, provide a secure income and be regularly adjusted to changing conditions.
“Hugo Boss requires its suppliers to pay at least the statutory minimum wage or an appropriate wage customary in the industry (whichever is the higher). Due to a conducted wage data collection, we know that the total remuneration of our suppliers regularly exceeds the national minimum wages. Hugo Boss is convinced that an individual company cannot enforce higher wages on its own. This is only possible within the framework of binding, sector-wide guidelines. As a member of the German Partnership on Sustainable Textiles, we will participate in the ‘Living Wages’ alliance initiative which is currently being launched. We are confident that the principle of negotiations between employers, employees and employee representatives on wages can be established on an international level in cooperation with the trade union federation IndustriAll and its initiative ACT (Action, Collaboration, Transformation) and that the planned initiative will thus deliver generally valid and transferable results.”
Boohoo: “We have a zero-tolerance approach to modern slavery, and our in-house compliance team ensure our products are made in factories that comply with all laws relating to minimum wage and working conditions. Our external whistleblowing policy provides a platform for suppliers and their employees to raise concerns directly to us about non-compliance. We recognise that the industry supply chain is complex and we are in discussions with industry body Ethical Trading Initiative and in addition have entered into partnership with Slave-Free Alliance, part of Hope for Justice, so we can continue to make further improvements to our processes and procedures across our supply chain.”
Adidas, Arcadia Group, C&A, Decathlon, Fruit of the Look, Gap Inc, Inditex, Missguided, Monsoon, Next, Nike, Pentland Brands, Puma, PVH, Tchibo, Under Armour, Fast Retailing and Zalando did not return request for comment.
Author: Labour Behind the Label & Clean Clothes Campaign
Labour Behind the Label and Clean Clothes Campaign invited 32 brands to respond to their living wage survey, to update their study into brand progress towards payment of a living wage. The responses are attached.
The updated UK study can be found here: 'Tailored Wages UK 2019: The state of pay in the global garment industry'.
The updated international study can be found here: 'Tailored Wages 2019: The State of Pay in the Global Garment Industry'.
- Related stories: Report: Major UK & global clothing brands are failing to deliver on living wage commitments to garment workers
- Related companies: adidas Amazon.com ASOS Boohoo C&A Décathlon Fast Retailing Fruit of the Loom (part of Berkshire Hathaway) G-Star Raw Gap Gucci H&M Hugo Boss Inditex Levi Strauss Marks & Spencer Missguided Monsoon Accessorize New Look Next Nike Pentland Group Primark (part of Associated British Foods) Puma PVH (Phillips-Van Heusen) Sainsbury's Tchibo Tesco Under Armour Uniqlo (part of Fast Retailing) Zalando SE
UK: Report finds no major brand can show living wages are paid to garment workers in its global supply chain, despite commitments
Author: Anna Bryher, Labour Behind the Label
"Tailored Wages UK 2019: The state of pay in the global garment industry", June 2019
... Tailored Wages UK 2019, looks at 32 top brands to see who is taking action to address poverty pay for the people who make our clothes. It found that whilst brands said they had a commitment to ensuring wages were enough to support workers’ basic needs, no major clothing brand is able to show that any workers making their clothing in Asia, Africa, Central America or Eastern Europe are paid enough to escape the poverty trap...
We contacted 32 leading brands, covering luxury, sportswear, fast fashion, and online retail sectors, to find out if a living wage was being delivered. We found that, while some brands are doing more than others to promote better practices, no brand can yet show that living wages are being paid to any worker in supply chains outside their own headquarter countries. 84% of brands had made some sort of commitment to wages being enough to meet workers’ basic needs, but very few were following through on this commitment in any measurable way. Only 8 brands had benchmarks for example to measure if wages were enough, and had any way of checking if this level was covered in prices paid to suppliers...
Author: Katie Imms, Drapers
"Fashion brands fail to pay supply chain workers living wage", 7 June 2019
Not-for-profit organisation Labour Behind the Label, which campaigns for workers’ rights in the clothing industry, surveyed 32 leading fashion brands...apart from luxury Italian house Gucci, owned by Kering Group, every brand received the lowest possible grade – E – which means they can’t show any evidence of a living wage being paid to any workers in their supply chain...
...An Asos spokesperson told Drapers: “There is no ‘silver bullet’ to solving these challenges, and we know there’s a lot that needs to be done...We can’t achieve this alone, so our ambition is to find long-term solutions to address the key human rights challenges in the garment supply chain through meaningful collaboration...To that end, we believe that Act...is the most credible initiative with a genuine chance of increasing garment workers’ wages and improving working conditions in a way that is scalable, sustainable and enforceable.”
A spokesperson from M&S added: “We believe it’s vital that our clothes are ethically sourced and we have a very clear set of global sourcing principles that are a condition of working with us...We’re committed to working in collaboration with our suppliers, and other retailers and organisations to improve workers’ conditions, support processes to establish fair wages and ensure mature industrial relations in the garment industry.”
Author: Clean Clothes Campaign
"Major brands are failing on living wage commitments", 5 June 2019
The report ‘Tailored Wages 2019: The state of pay in the global garment industry’ analyses responses from 20 top clothing brands about their progress in implementing a living wage for the workers who produce their clothes.
Whilst 85% of brands had some commitment to ensuring wages were enough to support workers’ basic needs, no brand was putting this into practice for any worker in countries where the vast majority of clothing is produced.
Anna Bryher, the report's author, said: “Five years on from our previous survey on this topic, no brand was able to show any progress towards a living wage being paid. Poverty in the garment industry isn’t improving, it’s getting worse. This situation is urgent. Our message to the brands is that human rights can’t wait and workers making the clothes sold in our shops must be paid enough to live with dignity.”
Of the 20 companies surveyed, 19 received the lowest possible grade in the report. This means that they produced no evidence that any worker making their clothes was paid a living wage anywhere in the world...
“Voluntary initiatives have failed to deliver human rights for workers,” said Neva Nahtigal from Clean Clothes Campaign International office. “The global economic model that drives down prices and pits low wage country against low wage country is too strong. It’s a fact that the workers who make almost all the clothes we buy live in poverty, whilst huge brands get rich from their labour. It is time for brands to be held accountable for the system of exploitation that they created and profit from.”
- Related stories: Report: Clean Clothes Campaign finds major clothing brands are failing on living wage commitments to workers
- Related companies: adidas Amazon.com C&A Décathlon Fast Retailing Fruit of the Loom (part of Berkshire Hathaway) G-Star Raw Gap Gucci H&M Hugo Boss Inditex Levi Strauss Nike Primark (part of Associated British Foods) Puma PVH (Phillips-Van Heusen) Tchibo Under Armour Zalando SE